|Scientific Name:||Piliocalyx eugenioides Guillaumin|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Pollock, C.M. & Hilton-Taylor, C.|
Piliocalyx eugenioides is endemic to New Caledonia, where it has an extent of occurrence (EOO) of 480 km² and an area of occupancy (AOO) of 16 km². The species is known from four locations; two of these sites are imprecise and are known only from collections dating back to 1870 and 1977. Its habitat is among the most threatened in New Caledonia; dry forests have been reduced dramatically, both in size and in quality. They have been intensively cut for agricultural purposes over the last century and what remains today are highly fragmented patches that suffer intense predation by the introduced Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and uncontrolled fires. Reduction of habitat has been estimated at 95% over the last 150 years (Bouchet 1995) and degradation continues today.
|Range Description:||This species is endemic to New Caledonia. There are two small sites occupied by the species in the Paita region, and two older collections (1870 and 1977) with imprecise and doubtful localities: one in Dumbea and the other in Koh (south of Kouaoua). Distances between sites are 10 and 92 km (in straight line). Its total extent of occurrence is 480 km², and its estimated area of occupancy within this range is 16 km².|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||In the dry forest of Pointe Maa (Paita), the P. eugenioides subpopulation is significant, with several dozens of mature trees. In Nakutakoin, it also forms dense and healthy population of several hundreds individuals. The other sites are old collections and no observations have been made on those subpopulations. In Pointe Maa, the recruitment is very weak due to intense predation by Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa) and the subpopulation mostly consists of adult trees. In Nakutakoin it does regenerate well despite the presence of deer and pigs.|
|Current Population Trend:||Unknown|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A population of P. eugenioides is known from the dry forest of Pointe Maa, another one is from the dry/mesic forest of Nakutakoin. The other locations are imprecise. Tropical dry forests are probably among the world’s most endangered of all lowland tropical forests. Because of their propensity to become pastures and their susceptibility to fire, dry forests have reduced dramatically, in size as well as in quality. In New Caledonia, they’ve been intensively cut for agricultural purposes for a century; what remains today are highly fragmented patches that have been estimated at 2% of the original area.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Major Threat(s):||The major threat is lowland clearing for cattle grazing and agriculture, which began in the 1850s and is ongoing. Another threat comes from the Rusa Deer (Cervus timorensis russa), which was introduced in the 1880s and adapted extremely well to the Caledonian habitats. Its population may have reached 105,000–110,000 individuals in the wild. This deer consumes a wide variety of plant species and also causes severe damage to trees by rubbing antlers against tree stems. The third major threat is uncontrolled fires that sweep across lowlands of New Caledonia each year during the dry season and have slowly transformed remnant patches of dry forest into shrubland dominated by Acacia spirorbis and Leucaena leucocephala, or Niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) savannas.|
|Conservation Actions:||Present in a partly protected area (the area is fenced but there are deer inside). Studies are ongoing on regeneration on this site. This species is cultivated ex situ.|
Bouchet, P., Jaffré, T. and Veillon, J.-M. 1995. Plant extinction in New Caledonia: protection of sclerophyll forest urgently needed. Biodiversity and Conservation 4: 415-428.
de Garine-Wichatitsky, M., Soubeyran, Y., Maillard, D. and Duncan, P. 2005. The diets of introduced rusa deer (Cervus timorensis russa) in a native sclerophyll forest and a native rainforest of New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 32(2): 117-126.
Guillaumin, A. 1948. Flore analytique et synoptique de la Nouvelle-Calédonie, phanérogames. Office de la Recherche Scientifique Coloniale, Paris.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Jaffré, T., Bouchet, P. and Veillon, J.-M. 1998. Threatened plants of New Caledonia: Is the system of protected areas adequate? Biodiversity and Conservation 7: 109-135.
Jaffré, T., Morat, P. and Veillon, J.-M. 1993. Etude floristique et phytogéographique de la forêt sclérophylle de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Bulletin du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 15(1-4): 107-146.
Meyer, J.-Y. 2000. Preliminary review of the invasive plants in the Pacific islands (SPREP Member Countries). Invasive species in the Pacific: A technical review and draft regional strategy. In: G. Sherley (ed.). SPREP.
|Citation:||Hequet, V. 2010. Piliocalyx eugenioides. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T177853A7470050.Downloaded on 20 April 2018.|
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