Acrostichum aureum 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Polypodiopsida Polypodiales Pteridaceae

Scientific Name: Acrostichum aureum L.
Common Name(s):
English Golden Leather Fern, Leather Fern

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2008-03-07
Assessor(s): Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.
Reviewer(s): Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)
This species is very widespread and is common. There are no major threats to this species. It is robust, fast growing and often takes over disturbed mangroves. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species has a very wide distribution. It is found in the Caribbean, in south and southeastern Asia, in Australasia, and in both East and West Africa.
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Equatorial Guinea; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Jamaica; Kenya; Liberia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Martinique; Mayotte; Mexico; Montserrat; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; United States (Florida); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – eastern central; Indian Ocean – western; Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest
Additional data:
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species can be common in many parts of its range. This species may in fact be increasing as it is easily colonizes cleared areas. It is very difficult to eradicate in situations where it overtakes previous mangrove systems. It can colonize open areas.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the high intertidal region. It is not restricted to mangrove systems and can grow in other areas in fresh water environments and in salt marshes. This is a species that is opportunistic and colonizes disturbed areas. It is fast growing, and very robust. It is a large herbaceous fern.
Systems:Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: The young leaves are eaten, used for fodder for animals, and are used for thatching.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no threats to this species, and in fact, it is a threat to other mangrove species. In mangrove systems that are disturbed, this species can take over and is difficult to eradicate.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas.

Classifications [top]

12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.7. Marine Intertidal - Mangrove Submerged Roots
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Food - animal
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

♦  Fibre
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: (Accessed: 29 June 2010).

Mukherjee, A.K. 1984. The environmental impact analysis for three mangroves species of Indian Sunderbans. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 26(3-4): 181-182.

Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.

Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.

Citation: Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Acrostichum aureum. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T177110A7366131. . Downloaded on 22 February 2018.
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