|Scientific Name:||Acrostichum aureum|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.|
|Reviewer/s:||Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species is very widespread and is common. There are no major threats to this species. It is robust, fast growing and often takes over disturbed mangroves. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species has a very wide distribution. It is found in the Caribbean, in south and southeastern Asia, in Australasia, and in both East and West Africa.|
Native:Angola (Angola); Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Australia; Bahamas; Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Benin; Brazil; Brunei Darussalam; Cameroon; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Comoros; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Costa Rica; Côte d'Ivoire; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Equatorial Guinea; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Jamaica; Kenya; Liberia; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Martinique; Mayotte; Mexico; Montserrat; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Palau; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Singapore; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Togo; Trinidad and Tobago; United States (Florida); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Viet Nam; Virgin Islands, British
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – eastern central; Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – western central; Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species can be common in many parts of its range. This species may in fact be increasing as it is easily colonizes cleared areas. It is very difficult to eradicate in situations where it overtakes previous mangrove systems. It can colonize open areas.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the high intertidal region. It is not restricted to mangrove systems and can grow in other areas in fresh water environments and in salt marshes. This is a species that is opportunistic and colonizes disturbed areas. It is fast growing, and very robust. It is a large herbaceous fern.|
|Systems:||Terrestrial; Freshwater; Marine|
|Major Threat(s):||There are no threats to this species, and in fact, it is a threat to other mangrove species. In mangrove systems that are disturbed, this species can take over and is difficult to eradicate.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas.|
Duke, N. 2006. Australia's Mangroves. The authoritative guide to Australia's mangrove plants. University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 29 June 2010).
Mukherjee, A.K. 1984. The environmental impact analysis for three mangroves species of Indian Sunderbans. Bulletin of the Botanical Survey of India 26(3-4): 181-182.
Robertson, A.I. and Alongi, D.M. 1992. Tropical Mangrove Ecosystems. American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC.
Spalding, M.D., Blasco, F. and Field, C.D. (eds). 1997. World Mangrove Atlas. The International Society for mangrove Ecosystems, Okinawa, Japan.
|Citation:||Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V. 2010. Acrostichum aureum. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 07 December 2013.|
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