|Scientific Name:||Hydrophis spiralis|
|Species Authority:||(Shaw, 1802)|
Hydrus spiralis Shaw, 1802
Leioselasma spiralis (Shaw, 1802)
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species has also been treated under the genus Leioselasma.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Rasmussen, A., Sanders, K., Lobo, A. & Gatus, J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Livingstone, S.R., Elfes, C.T., Polidoro, B.A. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)|
This species has a wide distribution and is common in some areas. It is captured as bycatch in trawl fisheries, but is it unknown if this is a major threat. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found in the Arabian Gulf, east to Indonesia and the Philippines (Heatwole 1999). It has also been found in New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands (Ineich and Rasmussen 1997).|
Native:Bahrain; Bangladesh; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Kuwait; Malaysia; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Oman; Pakistan; Philippines; Qatar; Saudi Arabia; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Thailand; United Arab Emirates
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species was rarely caught as bycatch by trawlers in western Malaysia in 1989 (Stuebing and Voris 1990).
This species is common along the east coast of India, predominantly a species of the south and the east coasts (Gulf of Mannar, Palk and the Coromandel coast) (A. Lobo pers. comm. 2009). Common in the Andaman Sea (A. Rasmussen pers. comm. 2009).
Fishermen report that the population appears to have declined along the east coast of India (A. Lobo pers. comm. 2009).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Little is known about the life history of this species. It has been reported to occur in deeper water habitats (Smith 1926) down to 50 m (A Lobo pers. comm. 2009). Found over muddy sandy bottoms, and feeds on eels.
In Pakistan, it has been collected offshore. It was not recorded from mangrove swamps (Minton 1966).
Records suggest that this species attain very large sizes of up to 2.75 m (Smith 1943). However, most specimens collected rarely ever even reach 2 m (A. Lobo pers. comm. 2009).
|Use and Trade:||Skins were used in Viet Nam in the past until the 1980s (A. Rasmussen pers. comm. 2009).|
|Major Threat(s):||This species is known to be caught as bycatch in trawl fisheries. It is not known how this might be affecting the population.|
There are no species-specific conservation measures for this species, but it may occur in marine protected areas.
No sea snake species is currently listed by CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora).
Guinea, M.L. 2007. Marine Snakes: Species Profile for the North-western Planning Area. Report for the Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT.
Heatwole, H. 1999. Sea Snakes. Krieger Publishing Company, Malabar, Florida.
Ineich, I. and Rasmussen, A.R. 1997. Sea snakes from New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands (Elapidae, Laticaudinae and Hydrophiinae). Zoosystema 19(2-3): 185-191.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Leviton, A.E., Wogan, G.O.U., Koo, M.S., Zug, G.R., Lucas, R.S. and Vindum, J.V. 2003. The dangerously venomous snakes of Myanmar: illustrated checklist with keys. Procedings of the California Academy of Sciences 54(24): 407-462.
Minton, S.A. 1966. A contribution to the herpetology of West Pakistan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 134: 27-184.
Smith, M.A. 1926. Monograph of the Sea Snakes (Hydrophiidae). British Museum, London.
Smith, M.A. 1943. The Fauna of British India, Ceylon and Burma, including the whole of the Indo-Chinese region. Vol. III. Serpentes. Taylor and Francis, London.
Stuebing, R. and Voris, H.K. 1990. Relative abundance of marine snakes on the west coast of Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Herpetology 24(2): 201-202.
|Citation:||Rasmussen, A., Sanders, K., Lobo, A. & Gatus, J. 2010. Hydrophis spiralis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 September 2014.|