Calamaria ingeri 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Calamariidae

Scientific Name: Calamaria ingeri Grismer, Kaiser & Yaakob, 2004
Taxonomic Notes: The species has been recently described from Tioman Island (Grismer et al., 2004)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered A3c; B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2012
Date Assessed: 2011-08-30
Assessor(s): Iskandar, D., Jenkins, H., Das, I., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R. & Vogel, G.
Reviewer(s): Tognelli, M. & Bowles, P.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, HT, Wearn, O.R., Wren, S., Zamin, T., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Lewis, S., Lintott, P. & Powney, G.
This species is only known from a single location on the island of Tioman, a patch of less than 100 km² which is all that remains of the original forest. This forest is not legally protected and deforestation is already becoming a problem. As the island itself has an area of little over 130 km², ongoing commercial development activities are likely to further accelerate habitat loss. In addition, due to the very small size of the population, there is also the potential for stochastic events to lead to extinction (R. Inger pers. comm. 2011). The species is listed as Critically Endangered as it is confined to an area of less than 100 km², it is found in a single location at risk from development, and there is a continuing decline in the quality and extent of remaining forest habitat. In addition, as it is projected that the present rate of habitat loss due to deforestation could lead to the destruction of the entire forested area, and hence a reduction in the population of this snake by as much as 100%, in the next 10 years.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to the Seribuat Archipelago in West Malaysia, where it is only known to occur on Tioman island (Grismer et al. 2006). The maximum extent of occurrence is the area of forest on the island, which is approximately 100 km².
Countries occurrence:
Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia)
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Two specimens were recorded at 98 m. asl. in one pitfall trap (I. Das pers. comm. 2011). There are no additional population data available for this species. Due to the current rate of forest loss, which may result in the removal of all forest on the island within the next ten years (and therefore also within the longer of ten years or three generations), this species is likely to become extinct without preventative action to preserve its habitat.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This fossorial snake is found in leaf litter in lowland forest.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is not used or traded.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The forests of Tioman are not protected and are currently subject to private management. The island is a well-known tourist destination and development for both residential and tourist areas is both ongoing and expanding, which is degrading and removing this species' forest habitat at a rate which may result in the complete loss of forest from the island within ten years.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: While there are no direct conservation measures for this species in place at present, most of Tioman was declared a 'state wildlife reserve' in 1972 (Ng et al. 1999). However, the island is not part of the protected area system (I. Das pers. comm. 2011). Further research into the abundance, habitat requirements, threats and ecology of this species is suggested, and population monitoring is recommended.
Twenty additional lizards and snakes are endemic to the same forest patch, making this a priority area for conservation in Malaysia (I. Das and G. Vogel pers. comm. 2011). Conservation measures should be undertaken, along with further research into trends in abundance and impact of altered habitat on this species. Due to the number of endemic species known to be present on the island, the distribution should be included within the national protected area system.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Whole (>90%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Grismer, L.L., Youmans, T.M., Wood Jr., P.L. and Grismer, J.L. 2006. Checklist of the herpetofauna of the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia with comments on biogeography, natural history and adaptive types. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 54(1): 157-180.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Malkmus, R., Manthey, U., Vogel, G., Hoffmann, P. and Kosuch, J. 2002. Amphibians and reptiles of Mount Kinabalu (North Borneo). A.R.G. Gantner Verlag K.G., Ruggell, Liechtenstein.

Ng, P.K.L., Yong, H.S. and Sodhi, N.S. 1999. Biodiversity research on Pulau Tioman, Peninsular Malaysia: a historical perspective. The Raffles Journal of Zoology Supp. No. 6: 5-10.

Vogel, G. 2007. pers. comm. Red List Assessment.

Citation: Iskandar, D., Jenkins, H., Das, I., Auliya, M., Inger, R.F., Lilley, R. & Vogel, G. 2012. Calamaria ingeri. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T176626A1442469. . Downloaded on 19 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided