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Asparagus arborescens 

Scope: Global
Language: English
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Liliales Asparagaceae

Scientific Name: Asparagus arborescens Willd. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
Common Name(s):
Spanish Esparragera
Synonym(s):
Asparagus equisetifolius Webb
Asparagus retrofractus Webb & Berthel.
Taxonomic Notes: Asparagus arborescens Schult. & Schult. f. is a wild relative of asparagus, A. officinalis L.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B2ab(ii,iii,iv) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-04-14
Assessor(s): Santos Guerra, A.
Reviewer(s): Kell, S.P. & Nieto, A.
Contributor(s): Kell, S.P. & Hargreaves , S.
Justification:
Asparagus arborescens is assessed as Vulnerable because the area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 2,000 km², the population is severely fragmented and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of habitat which is resulting in a decline in the area of occupancy and number of subpopulations.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A. arborescens is endemic to the Canary Islands. It occurs on all of the seven largest islands within the archipelago: Tenerife, Fuerteventura, Gran Canaria, Lanzarote, La Palma, La Gomera and El Hierro (Acebes Ginovés et al. 2004). The area of occupancy (AOO) is less than 2,000 km².
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Spain (Canary Is.)
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:0-2,000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Nogales et al. (2007) report that this species exists in sparse and locally distributed populations in the north of Lanzarote. It is also rare in Fuerteventura, Hierro and La Palma.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species is found in lowland dry areas, often on rocky slopes in Euphorbia communities. For example, in Tenerife it can be found in the dry habitats of the south and west up to 100 m and in La Gomera in the dry rocky slopes above Puerto Vallehermoso (Bramwell and Bramwell 2001).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: A. arborescens is a wild relative of and potential gene donor to asparagus, A. officinalis.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Populations outside protected areas are under threat from development for tourism and the construction of new roads. Overgrazing by goats and rabbits is an additional threat, especially in Fuerteventura and Lanzarote. Invasive species, such as Opuntia spp., Agave spp. and expanding populations of Pennisetum setaceum also threaten this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The genus Asparagus is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture.

Some populations occur within existing protected areas; however, these populations are not monitored or managed and the problem of invasive species and overgrazing also occurs at these sites. There is a need for population genetic and reproductive biology studies.

No germplasm accessions of A. arborescens are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). A review of the ex situ conservation status of this species is required and germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage should be carried out as necessary. It is thought that material might be stored in the seed bank of the Jardin Botánico Viera y Clavijo and grown in the living collection.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Unknown
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Oryctolagus cuniculus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Capra hircus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Cenchrus setaceus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.4. Loss of pollinator
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.4. Loss of pollinator
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity:Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Medium Impact: 7 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.4. Loss of pollinator
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.8. Other

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.2. Area-based Management Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.4. Habitat trends
0. Root -> 4. Other

♦  Other (free text)

Bibliography [top]

Acebes Ginovés, J.R., del Arco Aguilar, M., García Gallo, A., León Arencibia, M.C., Pérez de Paz, P.L., Rodríguez Delgado, O., Wildpret de la Torre, W., Martín Osorio, V.E, Marrero Gómez, M.C. and Rodríguez Navarro, M.L. 2004. Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta. In: I. Izquierdo, J.L. Martín, N. Zurita and M. Arechavaleta (eds), ista de especies silvestres de Canarias (hongos, plantas y animales terrestres), pp. 96–143. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial, Gobierno de Canarias.

Bramwell, D. and Bramwell, Z. 2001. Wild flowers of the Canary Islands. Second Edition. Editorial Rueda, Madrid.

EURISCO. 2015. EURISCO Catalogue release 1.1.16. Available at: http://eurisco.ecpgr.org.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

Nogales, M., Padilla, D.P., Nieves, C., Illera, J.C. and Traveset, A. 2007. Secondary seed dispersal systems, frugivorous lizards and predatory birds in insular volcanic badlands. Journal of Ecology 95(6): 1394–1403.


Citation: Santos Guerra, A. 2011. Asparagus arborescens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176533A7260984. . Downloaded on 21 September 2017.
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