Barbarea balcana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Magnoliopsida Capparales Brassicaceae

Scientific Name: Barbarea balcana Pančić
Common Name(s):
English Balkan Yellow Rocket
Barabarea rivularis Pančić (non Leoret nec Martin-Donios)
Barabrea alpicola Murb.
Taxonomic Notes: Barbarea balcana Pančić is a wild relative of the cultivated Barbarea species, B. verna (Mill.) Asch. (land cress), and B. vulgaris R. Br. (winter cress).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-11-26
Assessor(s): Uzundzhalieva, K., Economou, G., Stevanović, V. & Kell, S.P.
Reviewer(s): Maxted, N. & Nieto, A.
Contributor(s): Hargreaves , S., Kyratzis, A., Strajeru, S., Cuttelod, A. & Vörösváry, G.
European regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)
EU 27 regional assessment: Least Concern (LC)

Barbarea balcana is restricted to high mountain areas of the central Balkans above 1,500 m. In Serbia, one subpopulation is threatened by the planned construction of artificial ski slopes; however, there are no other immediate major threats reported to the rest of the subpopulations across its range. It is therefore assessed as Least Concern. Research is however needed into the species' overall distribution and population trend and germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is required. As this species is restricted to high altitudes, it could be particularly threatened by climate change; therefore, climate change modelling is recommended.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is recorded by Euro+Med PlantBase (2006) as native to Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, Serbia and Macedonia. However, V. Stevanović (pers. comm. 2010) believes that its presence in Greece is doubtful. It has a scattered distribution in high mountain areas of the central Balkans above 1,500 m. Its distribution is of a mountain insular type characterized by micro-disjunctions. The main range of this species is in Bulgaria.

The following localities have been recorded (Stevanović et al. 2010):
  • Central Bosnia: Mt. Vranica. A single locality which is very distant from the closest ones which are in the bordering mountains between Montenegro and Albania (Mt. Prokletije—Bjesket e Nemuna).
  • Serbia: Kosovo and Metochia province (Mt. Prokletije, Mt. Šarplanina); east Serbia (Mt. Stara Planina).
  • Montenegro: Mt. Prokletije.
  • Albania: Mts Prokletije—Bjesket e Nemuna, Mj Jalica—Maje e Djalices, Mt. Korab.
  • FYR Macedonia: Mts. Šarplanina, Rudoka, Vraca and Korab.
  • Bulgaria: the west and central part of Mt. Stara Planina—Mt. Balkan, Mts. Rila and Pirin; west and central Rhodopes.
  • Greece: Mts. Triklario and Varnous. These records are cited in the literature but specimens have not been seen; therefore, this locality requires confirmation. The localities in Greece are distant from neighbouring ones in FYR Macedonia and Albania.
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Montenegro; Serbia (Kosovo, Serbia)
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):1300
Upper elevation limit (metres):2200
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:In Serbia, the subpopulations at Mt. Prokletije and Mt. Šarplanina are stable, but the subpopulation on Mt. Stara Planina is under severe threat due to the planned construction of an artificial ski slope. The overall population trend is thought to be stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This species occurs in wet meadows and peat bogs along mountain rivers, streams, creeks and pond banks above (1,300-)1,500 m up to 2,200 m. It prefers silicious (acid) substrates.


Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is a wild relative of and potential gene donor to land cress, B. verna and winter cress, B. vulgaris.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): In Serbia, one subpopulation on Mt. Stara Planina is under severe threat from planned construction work to create an artificial ski slope. However, there are no other immediate major threats reported to the rest of the subpopulations across its range. As this species is restricted to high altitudes, it could be particularly threatened by climate change.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

The genus Barbarea is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture as part of the brassica complex. No germplasm accessions are reported by EURISCO to be held in European genebanks (EURISCO Catalogue 2010). Germplasm collection and duplicated ex situ storage is a priority for this species.

It occurs in protected areas in Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia (Šarplanina National Park and Stara Planina Nature Park); however, it is not monitored or actively managed. Research is needed on the distribution and population trends of this species and a monitoring programme should be implemented.

In Serbia it is evaluated as Lower Risk LRcd.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
3. Species management -> 3.4. Ex-situ conservation -> 3.4.2. Genome resource bank

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:Unknown
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

11. Climate change & severe weather -> 11.1. Habitat shifting & alteration
♦ timing:Future ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.3. Indirect ecosystem effects

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

♦  Other (free text)

Bibliography [top]

EURISCO. 2015. EURISCO Catalogue release 1.1.16. Available at:

Euro+Med PlantBase. 2010. Euro+Med PlantBase – the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean Plant Diversity. Version 2010. Berlin

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2017).

Stevanović, V. Tan, K. and Petrova, A. 2010. Mapping of the endemic flora of the Balkans (database). Belgrade, Copenhagen and Sofia.

Citation: Uzundzhalieva, K., Economou, G., Stevanović, V. & Kell, S.P. 2011. Barbarea balcana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T176519A7258415. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided