|Scientific Name:||Plecotus auritus|
|Species Authority:||Linnaeus, 1758|
|Taxonomic Notes:||According to new taxonomy this species is endemic to Europe, from Ireland to the Urals (Spitzenberger et al. 2006). The Asian populations have been identified as separate species, P. ognevi and P. sacrimontis. Some Spanish populations were described as subspecies P. auritus begognae (Juste et al. 2004).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Coroiu, I., Karataş, A., Juste, J., Paunovic, M., Palmeirim, J. & Benda, P.|
|Reviewer/s:||Vié, J.-C. & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is endemic to Europe, where it is widespread and common, with no major threats.
|Range Description:||Plecotus auritus is endemic to Europe, where it is widely distributed south of 65°N and west of the Urals and north of the Caucasus. In the south it is confined to higher elevations. It occurs on the British Isles and in Sardinia. Patchy distribution in Iberia, Italy and the Balkan Peninsula. In the Alps, maternity colonies are found up to 1,920 m asl, hibernacula up to 2,350 m asl (Horácek and Dulic 2004).|
Native:Albania; Andorra; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Estonia; Finland; France; Georgia; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Ireland; Italy (Sardegna); Kazakhstan; Latvia; Liechtenstein; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Moldova; Monaco; Montenegro; Netherlands; Norway; Poland; Portugal; Romania; Russian Federation; San Marino; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Spain; Sweden; Switzerland; Turkey; Ukraine; United Kingdom
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A common species in central Europe, but rare in the Mediterranean. Summer colonies usually number 10-50 females, sometimes up to 100. In winter it is generally solitary, although it may occasionally be found in very small clusters (2-3 animals). Nursery colonies of up to 10 (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm.). There have been no recorded population declines throughout most of its range, but it is decreasing in Turkey (A. Karatas pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It forages in the vicinity of the roost in deciduous and coniferous woodlands, along hedgerows, and in isolated trees in parks and gardens. It feeds mainly on moths and flies gleaned from foliage. In summer it roosts in colonies in buildings (attics, barns, churches, drainage channels), tree holes, and bat boxes. Solitary animals also roost in underground sites. In winter it hibernates in caves, mines, buildings and occasionally trees. A sedentary species, its longest recorded movement is 88 km (Gaisler et al. 2003).|
|Major Threat(s):||Loss of broad-leaved forest and particularly of mature trees is a threat in parts of its Mediterranean range (Balkans, Portugal, Spain and Turkey). It is affected locally by remedial timber treatment and loss of roost sites.|
It is protected by national legislation in most range states. There are also international legal obligations for its protection through the Bonn Convention (Eurobats) and Bern Convention. It is included in Annex IV of EU Habitats and Species Directive, and there is some habitat protection through Natura 2000.
Maintenance of natural habitat, especially forests with mature trees is required.
Entwistle, A. C. 1999. Plecotus auritus. In: A. J. Mitchell-Jones, G. Amori, W. Bogdanowicz, B. Kryštufek, P. J. H. Reijnders, F. Spitzenberger, M. Stubbe, J. B. M. Thissen, V. Vohralík, and J. Zima (eds), The Atlas of European Mammals, Academic Press, London, UK.
Gaisler, J., Hanák, V., Hanzal, V. and Jarský, V. 2003. Results of bat banding in the Czech and Slovak Republics, 1948-2000 (in Czech). Vespertilio 7: 3-61.
Horáček, I. and Dulic, B. 2004. Plecotus auritus Linnaeus, 1758 – Braunes Langohr. In: F. Krapp (ed.), Handbuch der Säugetiere Europas, Band 4: Fledertiere, Teil I: Chiroptera 2: Vespertilionidae 2, Molossidae, Nycteridae, pp. 953-999. AULA-Verlag, Wiesbaden, Germany.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
Juste, J., Ibáñez, C., Muñoz, J., Trujillo, D., Benda, P., Karataş, A. and Ruedi, M. 2004. Mitochondrial phylogeography of the long-eared bats (Plecotus) in the Mediterranean Palaearctic and Atlantic Islands. Molecular Pylogenetics and Evolution 31(3): 1114-1126.
Schober, W. and Grimmberger, E. 1998. Die Fledermause Europas. Kosmos Naturfuhrer, Stuttgart.
Spitzenberger, F., Strelkov, P. P., Winkler, H. and Haring, E. 2006. A preliminary revision of the genus Plecotus (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) based on genetic and morphological results. Zoologica Scripta 35: 187-230.
Wilson, D. E. and Reeder, D. M. 1993. Mammal Species of the World. A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
|Citation:||Hutson, A.M., Spitzenberger, F., Aulagnier, S., Coroiu, I., Karataş, A., Juste, J., Paunovic, M., Palmeirim, J. & Benda, P. 2008. Plecotus auritus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 14 March 2014.|
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