Eumetopias jubatus ssp. jubatus
|Scientific Name:||Eumetopias jubatus ssp. jubatus|
|Species Authority:||(Schreber, 1776)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Until 2011, Steller Sea Lions were treated as a single taxon in IUCN Red List assessments. In the USA, the species was listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1997 as two separate stocks (officially called “distinct population segments”) based on the phylogeographic method (Loughlin 1997). Although the strongest evidence for stock separation at the time was the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes across the range, a divergence in population trend was also apparent. Phillips et al. (2009) published a manuscript that argued for subspecies designation for the two stocks based on morphological and genetic studies. The Society for Marine Mammalogy subsequently recognized two subspecies of Eumetopias jubatus, E. j. jubatus (called the Western Steller Sea Lion) and E. j. monteriensis (called the Loughlin’s Steller Sea Lion; Committee on Taxonomy 2014). This assessment deals with the Western Steller Sea Lion.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2a ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Gelatt, T. & Sweeney, K.|
|Contributor(s):||Lowell, F. & Burkanov, V.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Lowry, L., Ahonen, H., Pollock, C.M., Chiozza, F. & Battistoni, A.|
Western Steller Sea Lions experienced a dramatic and unexplained population decline of about 70% between the late 1970s and 1990 with the steepest decline occurring between 1985 and 1989 when the population was reduced by 15%/year. To date the causes of this and any remaining decline remain unknown, although some potential causes have been eliminated as likely threats to recovery. The Western Steller Sea Lion population reached its low point in approximately 2000, and since then in the U.S. has shown an annual increase of 1.81%. However this overall increase was the result of increases in abundance in the eastern Aleutian Islands and Gulf of Alaska, and persistent declines have continued in the western Aleutian and Commander Islands. As the rookeries in the declining areas continue to shrink, and in some cases disappear, their relative proportion of the total population has progressively less influence on the overall trend. The dramatic decline of the 1980s and 1990s still weights the trend such that the US portion of the western subspecies has experienced a population reduction of approximately 62% during the last three generations (NMFS 2008, Johnson and Fritz 2014). The abundance data from Russia are not as complete but when the most recent counts from 2013/2015 ( Burkanov et al. in press, Burkanov unpublished data) are combined with the count data for the US sites using the aggregated trend method in Johnson and Fritz (2014), the overall population decline for the last three generations is approximately 50%. Western Steller Sea Lions should continue to be listed as Endangered under criterion A2a. The population reduction has been observed from count data and the causes are not understood. It is particularly concerning that the cause of the previous overall decline, and continued declines in some regions, have not been identified and that reports from 2013 in Russia indicate that an unexplained decline occurred at the Commander Islands, just west of the declining western Aleutians (Burkanov pers. comm.). If the decline continues in the western Aleutian Islands and Commander Islands, Western Steller Sea Lion rookeries could effectively disappear from a large region in the centre of the taxon’s range which will constitute a reduction in the area of occupancy.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Western Steller Sea Lions (commonly described as the western distinct population segment; NMFS 2008), are found from the eastern Gulf of Alaska (144° W is the official eastern boundary), west along the Aleutian Islands to the Kamchatka Peninsula, and south along the Kuril Islands to northern Japan and the Sea of Japan. They also occur in the Sea of Okhotsk, the Kuril Islands, and the Bering Sea north to Bering Strait (Loughlin 2009). Vagrants have been recorded in China, and at Herschel Island in the Canadian Beaufort Sea.|
Native:Japan; Russian Federation (Kamchatka, Kuril Is.); United States (Alaska, Aleutian Is.)
Vagrant:China; Korea, Democratic People's Republic of; Korea, Republic of
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Pacific – northeast; Pacific – northwest
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Abundance estimates of Steller Sea Lions in the US portion of the range are determined from counts from aerial photographs, and from researchers on land or in small boats. Pups and non-pups on rookeries and haulouts are counted during the pupping season. The National Marine Fisheries Service uses a Bayesian approach (agTrend; Johnson and Fritz 2014) to model all Steller Sea Lion survey data in the US range and to estimate the trends presented here. Counts in the Russian portion of the range are collected from shore or from small boats only.|
Between 1977 and 2007 Western Steller Sea Lions declined by approximately 69% with the steepest drop occurring during 1985–1989 when the entire population decreased at a rate of 15% annually (Merrick et al. 1992). The US population reached its low point in approximately 2000, and between 2000 and 2015 the non-pup and pup counts within this portion of the range increased at average rates of 1.81%/year (95% interval of 0.98-2.61%) and 1.95%/year (95% interval of 1.35-2.55%) respectively. For the three generation time period used in this analysis (1985-2015) the US portion of the western stock declined by an estimated 62%. The Russian portion of the western stock, which constitutes all Steller Sea Lions in Russia, declined throughout the 1970s and 1980s and is believed to have reached the lowest abundance in the early 1990s at approximately 13,000 individuals (Burkanov and Loughlin 2005). Therefore, modeling the trend from 1985 to 2015 captures both a population decrease and an increase; for the period between the early 1990s (Burkanov and Loughlin 2005) and 2013-2015 (Burkanov et al. in press, Burkanov unpublished data) the Russian portion of the western stock has increased by 86%. The estimated size of the US portion of the western stock is 148,101 in 1985 (32,911 pups in 1985 estimated using agTrend multiplied by an extrapolation factor of 4.5 [Calkins and Pitcher 1982] to estimate the total abundance) and 55,791 (12,398 multiplied by the 4.5 extrapolation factor) in 2015. In Russia, the last pup counts were in 2013 or 2015 (5,364 pups) which when multiplied by the same correction factor equates to 24,138 Sea Lions. The estimated reduction in abundance for the three-generation period from 1985 to 2015 is 62% in the USA and 50% for the Western subspecies overall.
The pattern of decline and recovery has not been the same in all parts of the Western Steller Sea Lion’s range. While the overall abundance in the USA and Russia has been slowly increasing in recent years, the number of animals in the western Aleutian Islands has continued to decline. In that region pup production is projected to have declined at a rate of 9.76% annually from 1985 to 2015. The overall amount of decline in the western Aleutians is over 81% from 1997 to 2015 and 94% from 1985 to 2015 (NMFS, unpublished data).
The most recent population viability analyses conducted using data collected from 1990 to 2012 for the Western Steller Sea Lion in US waters indicates a probability of quasi-extinction within 100 years of 0%. However, examining Sea Lions in the western Aleutian Island region alone revealed a 100-year extinction probability of approximately 89% (NMFS 2013).
|Current Population Trend:||Increasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:|
Steller Sea Lions are the largest otariids and the fourth largest pinniped. Both sexes are robust and powerfully built. They are sexually dimorphic, with adult males weighing three times as much as, and growing 20–25% longer than, adult females. Pups are born with a thick blackish-brown coat that is molted by about six months of age. The maximum length of adult males is about 3.3 m and average weight is 1,000 kg. The maximum length for adult females is about 2.5 m and average weight is 273 kg. Pups are born at an average size of about 1 m and 18–22 kg (Loughlin 2009).
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||No|
|Generation Length (years):||10|
|Movement patterns:||Not a Migrant|
|Congregatory:||Congregatory (and dispersive)|
|Use and Trade:||Western Steller Sea Lions have been harvested for commercial purposes in both the USA (Alaska) and the Soviet Union/Russia, but commercial harvesting ceased decades ago. They have been used as a subsistence resource by indigenous people for thousands of years. In the USA, Steller Sea Lions are primarily taken in communities in the northern Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands (Haynes and Mishler 1991). The US Marine Mammal Protection Act allows Alaska Natives to take Steller Sea Lions for subsistence and creation of Native handicrafts. The most recent information on the Native Alaskan harvest from the western subspecies estimated take as 199/year during 2007-2011 (Allen and Angliss 2014). The Aleut communities on the largest Pribilof Island (Saint Paul) reported an average of 25 Steller Sea Lions taken annually during 1999-2015 including those struck and lost (St. Paul Tribal Council pers. comm.). Saint George Island reported an annual average of three Sea Lions killed during the period 2011-2015 (M. Williams pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||The reasons for the large declines in the Western Steller Sea Lion population are unclear, but they have been the subject of intensive and ongoing investigations. Deliberate killing by fishermen, disease, incidental take by fisheries, and reduced food supply have been suggested as factors that may have contributed to the decline (Lowry et al. 1989, Loughlin and York 2000) but there is no evidence to suggest that intentional killing of Sea Lions currently occurs at any level that could be limiting recovery. In 2008, the US National Marine Fisheries Service released a Recovery Plan that identified and ranked threats to recovery using a weight of evidence approach to assess the relative impact (NMFS 2008). They recognized three threats as “potentially high”: environmental variability, competition with commercial fisheries, and Killer Whale predation. Atkinson et al. (2008) reviewed the suspected anthropogenic sources of mortality for Western Steller Sea Lions and concluded that competition with fisheries and the potential impacts of contaminants could not be excluded as continuing threats to recovery.|
Western Steller Sea Lions are listed as vulnerable in the Threatened Wildlife of Japan Red Data Book. Hattori and Yamamura (2014) reported that over 200 Steller Sea Lions were culled annually during 1960-1993 to reduce predation on Japanese commercial fisheries. Recent work indicates that the annual culling was then reduced to a limit of 116/year until 2010 at which time a new 5 year quota of 1,030 culled Sea Lions was imposed. This resulted in an increased annual average take (Matsuda et al. 2015). In Russia, the major Steller Sea Lion rookeries were given protection under the Northern Fur Seal and Sea Otter Conservation Act in the late 1950s. They were listed as endangered (category 2) in the Russian Red Data Book in 1994 and harvest was prohibited. These measures had a positive effect in the western portion of the range as the population increased around Sakhalin Island, the Kuril Islands, and in the northern Sea of Okhotsk. However, abundance along the eastern coast of Kamchatka and in the Commander Islands has not recovered for unknown reasons (V. Burkanov pers. comm.). Unpublished data reported by V. Burkanov suggest that a decline in population on the Commander Islands occurred between 2013 and 2015.
In the US, the Steller Sea Lion is listed as depleted under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. The species (E. jubatus) was listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in 1990, and in 1997 the western population (corresponding to E. j. jubatus) was uplisted to endangered. A recovery plan for Steller Sea Lions was approved in 1992, and a revised recovery plan was published in 2008. Critical habitat was designated in US waters under the ESA in 1993. A revision of critical habitat was initiated by the National Marine Fisheries Service in 2014 and was still underway in 2015. No-entry zones were established around rookeries at the time of ESA listing, and fisheries, particularly those operating in critical habitat, have been managed to reduce the likelihood of competitive interactions. Extensive funding has been made available for Steller Sea Lion research to develop information on ecology, behavior, genetics, population dynamics and movements. Results have been used to assist in the development of management activities, to attempt to understand the reasons for the decline, and to promote recovery of the species (NMFS 2008). The fact that the growth rate of the population is now positive suggests that at least some of these conservation efforts have had a beneficial effect.
Allen, B.M. and Angliss R.P. 2014. Alaska marine mammal stock assessments, 2013. U.S Department of Commerce National Marine Fisheries Service Technical Memorandum NMFSAFSC-277.
Altukhov, A.V., Andrews, R.D., Calkins, D.G., Gelatt, T.S., Gurarie, E.D., Loughlin, T.R., Mamaev, E.G., Nikulin, V.S., Permyakov, P.A., Ryazanov, S.D., Vertyankin, V.V. and Burkanov, V.N. 2015. Age specific survival rates of Steller sea lions at rookeries with divergent population trends in the Russian far east. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0127292. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127292.
Atkinson, S., Demaster, D. P. and Calkins, D. G. 2008. Anthropogenic causes of the western Steller sea lion population decline and their threat to recovery. Mammal Review In Press(In Press): In Press.
Burkanov, V. N. and Loughlin, T. R. 2005. Distribution and abundance of Steller sea lions, (Eumetopias jubatus), on the Asian coast, 1720’s-2005. Marine Fish Review 67(2): 1-62.
Burkanov V.N., Artemyeva, S.M., Hattori, K., Isono, T., Permyakov, P. A. and Tretyakov, A.V. in press. Results of a brief survey of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the northern Sea of Okhotsk and the coast of Sakhalin Island, 2013. Proceedings of 8th International Conference Marine Mammals of Holarctic, September 22-27, 2014. Saint Petersburg, Russia.
Calkins, D. G. and Pitcher, K. W. 1982. Population assessment ecology and trophic relationships of Steller’s sea lions in the Gulf of Alaska. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental shelf. U.S. Dept. of Commerce and U.S. Dept. of Interior, Final Reports of Principal Investigators, pp. 447-546.
Committee on Taxonomy. 2014. List of marine mammal species and subspecies. Available at: www.marinemammalscience.org. (Accessed: 25 November 2014).
Fadely, B. and Lander, M. 2012. Satellite tracking of adult female Steller sea lions in the Western-Central Aleutian Islands reveals diverse foraging behaviors. Available at: http://www.afsc.noaa.gov/quarterly/ond2012/divrptsNMML1.htm.
Fadely, B.S., Gelatt, T., Lander, M.E., Haulena, M., Rea, L.D., Vollenweider, J.J., Mcdermott, S., Rehberg, M.J. and Beckmen, K. 2013. Remotely-delivered chemical immobilization of adult female Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) and post-handling foraging behaviors. Alaska Marine Science Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska. January 21-25, 2013: 207.
Fadely, B.S., Robson, B.W., Sterling, J.T., Greig, A. and Call, K.A. 2005. Immature Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) dive activity in relation to habitat features of the eastern Aleutian Islands. Fisheries Oceanography 14: 243-258.
Gentry, R.L. and Johnson, J.H. 1981. Predation by sea lions on northern fur seal neonates. Mammalia 45(4): 423-430.
Hattori, K. and Yamamura, O. 2014. Steller Sea Lion. Available at: http://kokushi.job.affrc.go.jp/H23/H23_55.pdf.
Haynes, T.L. and Mishler, C. 1991. The subsistence harvest and use of Steller sea lions in Alaska. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Technical Paper no. 198.
Holmes, E. E., Fritz, L. W., York, A. E. and Sweeney, K. 2007. Age-structured modeling reveals long-term declines in the natality of western Steller sea lions. Journal of Applied Ecology 17: 2214-2232.
Horning, M. and Mellish, J.A. 2014. In cold blood: evidence of Pacific sleeper shark (Somniosus pacificus) predation on Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in the Gulf of Alaska. Fishery Bulletin 112: 297-310.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2016).
Jemison, L.A., Pendleton, G.W., Fritz, L.W., Hastings, K.K., Maniscalco J,M., Trites, A.W. and Gelatt, T.S. 2013. Inter-population movements of Steller sea lions in Alaska with implications for population separation. PLoS ONE 8: e70167.
Johnson, D.S. and Fritz, L. 2014. agTrend: a Bayesian approach for estimating trends of aggregated abundance. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 5: 1110-1115.
Lander, M.E., Loughlin, T.R., Logsdon, M.G., VanBlaricom, G.R. and Fadely. B.S. 2010. Foraging effort of juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) with respect to heterogeneity of sea surface temperature. Endangered Species Research 10: 145-158.
Loughlin, T.R. 1997. Using the phylogeographic method to identify Steller sea lion stocks. In: A. Dizon, S.J. Chivers and W.F. Perrin (eds), Molecular Genetics of Marine Mammals, pp. 159–171. Society for Marine Mammalogy Special Publication 3, Lawrence, Kansas, USA.
Loughlin, T.R. 2009. Steller sea lion Eumetopias jubatus. In: W.F. Perrin, B. Wursig and J.G.M. Thewissen (eds), Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals, pp. 1107-1110. Academic Press.
Loughlin, T. R. and York, A. E. 2000. An accounting of the sources of Steller sea lion, (Eumetopias jubatus), mortality. Marine Fisheries Review 62(4): 40-45.
Loughlin, T.R., Sterling, J.T., Merrick, R.L., Sease, J.L. and York, A.E. 2003. Diving behavior of immature Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Fishery Bulletin 101: 566-582.
Lowry, L. F., Frost, K. J. and Loughlin, T. R. 1989. Importance of walleye pollock in the diets of marine mammals in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea, and implications for fishery management. Proceedings of the International Symposium on the Biology and Management of Walleye Pollock, November, 1988. Anchorage, AK, U.S.A.: 710-726.
Matsuda, H., Yamamura, O., Kitakado, T., Kobayashi, Y., Kobayashi, M., Hattori, K. and Kato, H. 2015. Beyond dichotomy in the protection of marine mammals in Japan. Therya 6: 283-296.
Merrick, R.L. and Loughlin, T.R. 1997. Foraging behavior of adult female and young-of-the-year Steller sea lions in Alaskan waters. Canadian Journal of Zoology 75: 776-786.
Merrick, R.L., Calkins, D.G. and McAllister, D.C. 1992. Aerial and ship-based surveys of Steller sea lions in Southeast, Alaska, the Gulf of Alaska and Aleutian Islands during June and July 1991. U.S. Department of Commerce., NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-1.
National Marine Fisheries Sevice (NMFS). 2010. Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) and Gulf of Alaska (GOA) Groundfish Fisheries Section 7 Consultation – Draft Biological Opinion. National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Region.
National Marine Fisheries Sevice (NMFS). 2013. Forecasting wDPS Steller Sea Lion Counts and Quasi-Extinction Using the agTrend Package for the R Statistical Environment. Unpublished report, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Marine Mammal Laboratory, Seattle, WA..
NMFS. 2008. Recovery Plan for the Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus). Revision. National Marine Fisheries Service, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.
Phillips, C.D., Bickham, J.W., Patton, J.C. and Gelatt, T.S. 2009. Systematics of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus): subspecies recognition based on concordance of genetics and morphometrics. Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University 283: 1-15.
Pitcher, K.W., Calkins, D.G. and Pendleton, G.W. 1998. Reproductive performance of female Steller sea lions: an energetics-based reproductive strategy? Canadian Journal of Zoology 76: 2075-2083.
Pitcher, K.W., Rehberg, M.J., Pendleton, G.W., Raum-Suryan, K.L., Gelatt, T.S., Swain, U.G. and Sigler, M.F. 2005. Ontogeny of dive performance in pup and juvenile Steller sea lions in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 83: 1214-1231.
Rehberg, M.J. and Burns, J.M. 2008. Differences in diving and swimming behavior of pup and juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) in Alaska. Canadian Journal of Zoology 86: 539-553.
Sigler, M.F., Hulbert, L.B., Lunsford, C.R., Thompson, N.H., Burek, K., O’Corry-Crowe, G. and Hirons, A.C. 2006. Diet of Pacific sleeper shark, a potential Steller sea lion predator, in the north-east Pacific Ocean. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 392-405.
Sinclair, E. and Zeppelin, T. 2002. Seasonal and spatial differences in diet in the western stock of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). Journal of Mammalogy 83.
Sinclair, E.H., Johnson, D.S., Zeppelin, T.K. and Gelatt, T.S. 2013. Decadal variation in the diet of Western Stock Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus). U. S. Department of Commerce, NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-AFSC-248.
Swain, U.G. 1996. Foraging behaviour of female Steller sea lions in Southeast Alaska and the Eastern Gulf of Alaska. In: Steller sea lion recovery investigations in Alaska, 1992-1994. Alaska Department of Fish and Game, Division of Wildlife Conservation, 333 Raspberry Rd., Anchorage, AK 99518.
Van de Kerk, M., de Kroon, H. Conde, D.A. and Jongejans, E. 2013. Carnivora population dynamics are as slow and fast as those of other mammals: implications for their conservation. PLoS ONE 8(8): e70354. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0070354.
York, A.E. 1994. The population dynamics of northern sea lions, 1975–1985. Marine Mammal Science 10: 38-51.
|Citation:||Gelatt, T. & Sweeney, K. 2016. Eumetopias jubatus ssp. jubatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T17367725A66991984.Downloaded on 30 July 2016.|