Amphibolis griffithii 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Najadales Cymodoceaceae

Scientific Name: Amphibolis griffithii (J.M.Black) Hartog
Common Name(s):
English Species code: Ag

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2007-10-24
Assessor(s): Short, F.T., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C.
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K.E. & Livingstone, S.
Amphibolis griffithii is endemic to southern Australia. The overall population size is thought to be stable. There are no major threats other than localized coastal development. This species is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Amphibolis griffithii is endemic to Australia, ranging from Geraldton in mid-Western Australia to Victor Harbour, South Australia.
Countries occurrence:
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):56
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Based on two studies on Amphibolis griffithii from the Global Seagrass Trajectories Database, there was an average of 0.8% decline per annum between 1990 and 2000. The population is thought to be overall stable.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:In the sub-littoral zone, Amphibolis griffithii may form extensive beds on sandy floors, sand covered rocks, gravel bottoms and, less frequently, on banks of firm, compact clay in places where the water is kept continually in motion by currents or wave action. Plants of the genus Amphibolis are dioecious and viviparous (Ducker et al. 1977). The considerably smaller range of this species compared to A. antarctica suggests a limited temperature tolerance (Ducker et al. 1977).
Generation Length (years):10

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Amphibolis griffithii has no known major threats. There may be some localized threat from human activities such as port and industrial development, pipelines, communication cables, mining and dredging. Seagrass losses may be attributed to dredging of the Fremantle Port Authority shipping channel, shell-sand dredging, eutrophication, and movement of large sand sheets (Kendrick et al. 2000).

Cockburn Sound, an area in the range of Amphibolis griffithii, has been subjected to steady degradation since 1954, with the establishment of an oil refinery and the successive establishments of steel works, fertilizer factories, sewage-treatment facilities, and a power station. This has lead to contaminated effluents and increased nutrient loads in the surrounding waters. Between 1954 and 1978 the seagrass meadow in this region decreased from 4,200 to 900 ha and leaf detritus production was reduced from 23,000 to 4,000 t (dry weight)/year. Seagrasses in this region include Posidonia sinuosaPosidonia australisPosidonia coriacea, Halophila ovalis, Halophila decipiens, Syringodium isoetifolium, Zostera tasmanica, Amphibolis griffithii, and Amphibolis antarctica (Cambridge and McComb 1984).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Amphibolis griffithii is protected in some marine protected areas within Western Australia. It is protected in the Australian Fisheries Act and Marine Park Act.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.5. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Sandy-Mud
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.6. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Muddy
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.9. Marine Neritic - Seagrass (Submerged)
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.2. Commercial & industrial areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

3. Energy production & mining -> 3.2. Mining & quarrying
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.2. Utility & service lines
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.3. Shipping lanes
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

Bibliography [top]

Cambridge, M.L. and McComb, A.J. 1984. The loss of seagrasses in Cockburn Sound, Western Australia. I. The time course and magnitude of seagrass decline in relation to industrial development. Aquatic Botany 20: 229-243.

den Hartog, C. 1970. The sea-grasses of the world. Verhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, afd, Natuurkunde, Tweede Reeks 59: 1-275.

Ducker, S.C., Foord, N.J. and Knox, R.B. 1977. Biology of Australian seagrasses: the genus Amphibolis C. Agardh (Cymodoceaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 25: 67-95.

Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. 2003. World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Berkeley.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: (Accessed: 2 September 2010).

Kendrick, G.A., Eckersly, J. and Walker, D.I. 1999. Landscape-scale changes in seagrass distribution over time: a case study from Success Bank, Western Australia. Aquatic Botany 65: 293-309.

Kendrick, G.A., Hegge, B.J., Wyllie, A., Davidson, A. and Lord, D.A. 2000. Changes in seagrass cover on Success and Parmelia Banks, western Australia between 1965 and 1995. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 50: 341-353.

Kirkman, H. and Walker, D.I. 1989. Regional studies - Western Australian seagrass. In: A.W.D. Larkum, A.J. McComb and S.A. Shepherd (eds), Biology of Seagrasses. A treatise on the biology of seagrasses with special reference to the Australian region, pp. 157-181. Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Citation: Short, F.T., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C. 2010. Amphibolis griffithii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T173360A6999061. . Downloaded on 25 June 2018.
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