|Scientific Name:||Phyllospadix torreyi|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Short, F.T., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C.|
|Reviewer(s):||Livingstone, S., Harwell, H. & Carpenter, K.E.|
The population trend for P. torreyi is thought to be stable. There are no major threats although there have been some localized declines from coastal development. This species is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||Phyllospadix torreyi occurs in the Pacific from northern Vancouver Island on the west coast of Canada to the tip of Baja California and Mexico.|
Native:Canada; Mexico; United States
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northeast
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population status of this species is thought to be stable.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Phyllospadix torreyi is a colonial marine angiosperm that lives on turbulent rocky shores. Surfgrass exhibits a strongly female-biased sex ratio in flowering shoots throughout its distribution (Williams 1995). In the Pacific coast of North America it grows at greater depths and is generally more abundant on the exposed parts of the coast and even in tidal pools with sandy bottoms. It is also found in the macrophyte detritus layers in submarine canyons in southern and central California (Green and Short 2003).
Surfgrasses (Phyllospadix spp.) are not found where sea surface temperatures exceed 21°C in winter or 27°C in the summer. Surfgrass has a low tolerance to higher temperatures which suggests that populations in Baja California Sur might be impacted by global climate change. Phyllospadix scouleri is distributed higher in the lower intertidal and upper subtidal zones than P. torreyi.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species. Localized threats include coastal development and modifications and over-water structures in the form of ferry terminals and commercial docks. Mechanical damage from boats and dredging is also a minor localized threat. Phyllospadix torreyi is sensitive to desiccation (Ramirez-Garcia et al. 2002) as it lives in more shallow areas. It may also be more susceptible to climate change.|
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known species-specific conservation measures for this species. It is not clear if the federal, provincial or state, or local administrative laws and ordinances recognize this species in the Northeast Pacific (Green and Short 2003).|
Green, E.P. and Short, F.T. 2003. World Atlas of Seagrasses. University of California Press, Berkeley.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.3). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 2 September 2010).
Ramirez-Garcia, P., Lot, A., Duarte, C.M., Terrados, J. and Agawin, N.S.R. 1998. Bathymetric distribution, biomass and growthdynamics of intertidal Phyllospadix scouleri and Phyllospadix torreyi in Baja California (Mexico). Marine Ecology Progress Series 173: 13-23.
Ramirez-Garcia, P., Terrados, J., Ramos, F., Lot, A., Ocana, D. and Duarte, C.M. 2002. Distribution and nutrient limitation of surfgrass, Phyllospadix scouleri and Phyllospadix torreyi, along the Pacific coast of Baja California (Mexico). Aquatic Botany 74: 121-131.
Williams, S.L. 1995. Surfgrass (Phyllospadix torreyi) reproduction: reproductive phenology, resource allocation and male rarity. Ecology 76(6): 1953-1970.
|Citation:||Short, F.T., Carruthers, T.J.R., Waycott, M., Kendrick, G.A., Fourqurean, J.W., Callabine, A., Kenworthy, W.J. & Dennison, W.C. 2010. Phyllospadix torreyi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.|