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Brookesia minima

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA REPTILIA SQUAMATA CHAMAELEONIDAE

Scientific Name: Brookesia minima
Species Authority: Boettger, 1893
Taxonomic Notes:

Brookesia tuberculata and B. peyrierasi were synonymized with this taxon by Raxworthy (1991) but these species were reinstated by Glaw et al. (1999). The taxonomy of the B. minima group is in need of revision and the distribution of all species needs to be re-evaluated following thorough morphometric and molecular studies.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-01-25
Assessor/s: Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E.
Reviewer/s: Bowles, P. & Tolley, K.
Justification:
Listed as Vulnerable as the species has an extent of occurrence of 7,190 km², within which it occurs as a severely fragmented population, and there is a continuing decline in the area and quality of habitat due to slash-and-burn agriculture and logging.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:

This leaf chameleon is endemic to the island of Madagascar where it occurs at a few sites in the northeast (Glaw and Vences 2007), including Nosy Be (Andreone et al. 2003) and Manongarivo (Glaw et al. 1999). Records prior to the publication of Glaw et al. (1999) included synonyms of B. mimina that have since been returned to species status. Careful consideration is clearly needed of each locality record for this species group because of the difficulties associated with determining species identity in the field or from a small number of specimens. Confirmed localities for this species are therefore few, although it was recently found at Sahamalaza (Raselimanana 2008). Its presence in Tsaratanana requires confirmation. Individuals have been recorded from sea-level to 750 m. The lizard's extent of occurrence is taken to be 7,190 km², but the above-mentioned difficulties in confidently assigning records to this species make its true distributional extent unclear.



Countries:
Native:
Madagascar
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is not common, and due to pressure on its lowland forest habitat the population is probably declining. Remaining forest occurs as fragments throughout its range, and the population is therefore thought to be severely fragmented.
Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This chameleon species inhabits low and mid elevation humid forest (Glaw et al. 1999). It uses a freeze and roll anti-predator defence (Raxworthy 1991). Like other Brookesia species it is active in leaf litter during the day and roosts on low vegetation at night.

Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species occurs in native forest in the northwest of the island, where slash and burn agriculture and logging for charcoal production and construction materials are the major threats.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in a few protected areas, including Lokobe, Manongarivo and Sahamalaza. Research is needed to clarify the taxonomy of this and related species, and to confirm species identities at sites with uncertain records in order to clarify the distribution of this chameleon. More information is needed on this species' exposure to and sensitivity to threats. Protected areas where this species occurs should be managed to limit the impacts of human activities on this species.

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F., Glaw, F., Nussbaum, R.A., Raxworthy, C.J., Vences, M. and Randrianirina, J.E. 2003. The amphibians and reptiles of Nosy Be (NW Madagascar) and nearby islands: a case study of diversity and conservation of insular fauna. Journal of Natural History 37: 2119-2149.

Brygoo, E.R. 1978. Reptiles Sauriens Chamaeleonidae. Genre Brookesia et complément pour le genre Chamaeleo. Faune de Madagascar 47: 1-173.

Carpenter, A I. 2003. The Ecology and Exploitation of Chameleons in Madagascar. Unpublished PhD thesis. University of East Anglia.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

Glaw, F., M. Vences, T. Ziegler, W. Bohme, and J. Kohler. 1999. 1999. Specific distinctness and biogeography of the dwarf chameleons Brookesia minima, B. peyrierasi and B. tuberculata (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae): evidence from hemipenal and external morphology. Journal of Zoology 247: 225-238.

Glaw, F., Vences, M., Ziegler, T., Böhme, W. and Köhler, J. 1999. Specific distinctness and biogeography of the dwarf chameleons Brookesia minima, B. peyrierasi and B. tuberculata (Reptilia: Chamaeleonidae): evidence from hemipenal and external morphology. Journal of Zoology 247: 225-238.

Harper, G.J., Steininger, M.K., Tucker, C.J., Juhn, D. and Hawkins, A.F.A. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34: 1-9.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Jenkins, R.K.B., Brady, L.D., Bisoa, M., Rabearivony, J. and Griffiths, R.A. 2003. Forest disturbance and river proximity influence chameleon abundance in Madagascar. Biological Conservation 109: 417-415.

Rakotomalala, D. and Raselimanana, A.P. 2003. Les amphibiens et reptiles des massifs de Marojejy, d'anjanaharibe-Sud et du couloir forestier de Betaolana. In: S.M. Goodman and L. Wilme (eds), Nouveaux résultats d’inventaires biologiques faisant référence à l’altitude dans la région des massifs montagneux de Marojejy et d’Anjanaharibe-Sud, pp. 146-202. Antananarivo.

Raselimanana, A.P. 2008. Herpétofaune des forêts sèches malgaches. Malagasy Nature 1: 46-75.

Raselimanana, A.P., Rakotomalala, D. and Rakotondraparany, F. 1998. Les reptiles et amphibiens: diversite et conservation. In: J. Ratsirarson and S.M. Goodman (eds), Invetaire Biologique de la Foret Tampolo, Antananarivo.

Raselimanana, A.P., Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 2000. Herpetofaunal species diversity and elevational distribution within the Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology 97: 157-174.

Raxworthy, C.J. 1991. Field observations on some dwarf chameleons (Brookesia spp.) from rainforest areas of Madagascar, with the description of a new species. ournal of Zoology 224: 11-25.

Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of amphibians, reptiles and small mammals of Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.

Citation: Jenkins, R.K.B., Andreone, F., Andriamazava, A., Anjeriniaina, M., Glaw, F., Rabibisoa, N., Rakotomalala, D., Randrianantoandro, J.C., Randrianiriana, J., Randrianizahana , H., Ratsoavina, F. & Robsomanitrandrasana, E. 2011. Brookesia minima. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
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