Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Reptilia Squamata Gekkonidae

Scientific Name: Uroplatus ebenaui
Species Authority: Boettger, 1879
Taxonomic Notes:

Genetic data reveal that U. ebenaui is a complex of several species and a full taxonomic revision is required (Glaw and Vences 2007, Greenbaum et al. 2007, Raxworthy et al. 2008). Subpopulations from Marojejy, Tsaratanana and Montagne d'Ambre may warrant specific status (Greenbaum et al. 2007).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2011-01-28
Assessor(s): Raxworthy, C.J., Ratsoavina, F., Glaw, F. & Rabibisoa, N.
Reviewer(s): Cox, N.A. & Bowles, P.
Listed as Vulnerable on the basis that it has a confirmed extent of occurrence of 7,623 km², it occurs as a severely fragmented population, and there is a continuing decline in the extent and quality of suitable habitat and potentially in the number of mature individuals.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This leaf-tailed gecko is endemic to lowland north Madagascar (Raxworthy et al. 2008, Greenbaum et al. 2007), and to the island of Nosy Be. Additional records from sites further south in Madagascar are doubtful, and most are probably attributable to additional species within the U. ebenaui complex. The elevational range is from sea level to approximately 500 m asl., and the extent of occurrence is estimated to be 7,623 km².
Countries occurrence:
Upper elevation limit (metres): 500
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


No quantitative information is available on this gecko's population; however, it is dependent on intact forest, which is fragmentary and under pressure throughout its range. The population is therefore presumed to be both severely fragmented and declining.

Current Population Trend: Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:

This is a nocturnal lizard that lives in relatively intact humid and transitional forest. It has been observed active on leaves at heights of between one and two metres. It lays two spherical eggs on the ground.

Systems: Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: Yes

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is exported live for commercial purposes, with a legal quota of 2,000 individuals, but the taxonomic confusion surrounding this complex makes the identity of exported specimens difficult to verify.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species requires relatively intact forest to survive, and so this species is threatened by the loss and degradation of this habitat through logging, land clearance for agriculture, and perhaps accidental burning. Collection for the pet trade potentially represents a localized threat, as there is little information on legal collecting localities and so harvest levels may be high in some areas. Additionally, Andreone et al. (2003) reported illegal collection from the island of Nosy Be.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species occurs in at least five protected areas. Commercial export of live animals is limited and probably does not represent a major threat; however more information is needed on population trends at collection sites to ensure harvests do not pose a localized risk to individual subpopulations. Further research is needed into the taxonomy of this complex, and into its distribution, population status and threats.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.5. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:Unknown
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Area based regional management plan:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes
2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.1. Shifting agriculture
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.3. Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Majority (50-90%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Medium Impact: 6 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.1. Fire & fire suppression -> 7.1.1. Increase in fire frequency/intensity
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Unknown ♦ severity: Unknown ⇒ Impact score: Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Andreone, F., Randrianirina, J.E., Jenkins, P.D. and Aprea, G. 2000. Species diversity of Amphibia, Reptilia and Lipotyphla (Mammalia) at Ambolokopatrika, a rainforest between the Anjanaharibe-Sud and Marojejy massifs, NE Madagascar. Biodiversity and Conservation 9: 1587-1622.

Andreone, F., Vences, M. and Randrianirina, J.E. 2001. Patterns of amphibian and reptile diversity at Berara Forest (Sahamalaza Penninsular), NW Madagascar. Italian Journal of Zoology 68: 235-241.

Glaw, F. and Vences, M. 2007. A Fieldguide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Madagascar. Third Edition. Vences & Glaw Verlag, Cologne.

Greenbaum, E., Bauer, A.M., Jackman, T. R., Vences, M. and Glaw, F. 2007. A phylogeny of the enigmatic Madagascan geckoes of the genus Uroplatus (Squamata: Gekkonidae). Zootaxa 1493: 41-51.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Rakotondravony, H. 2006. Patterns de la diversité des reptiles et amphibiens de la région de Loky-Manambato. In: S.M. Goodman and L. Wilme (eds), Inventaires de la faune et de la flore du nord de Madagascar dans la région Loky-Manambato, Analamerana et Andavakoera., pp. 101-148. Antananarivo.

Raselimanana, A.P. 2008. Herpétofaune des forêts sèches malgaches. Malagasy Nature 1: 46-75.

Raselimanana, A.P., Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 2000. Herpetofaunal species diversity and elevational distribution within the Parc National de Marojejy, Madagascar. Fieldiana Zoology 97: 157-174.

Raxworthy, C.J. and Nussbaum, R.A. 1994. A rainforest survey of amphibians, reptiles and small mammals of Montagne d'Ambre, Madagascar. Biological Conservation 69: 65-73.

Raxworthy, C.J., Pearson, R.G., Zimkus, B.M., Reddy, S., Deo, A.J., Nussbaum, R.A. and Ingram, C.M. 2008. Continental speciation in Madagascar: contrasting biogeographic patterns of divergence in the Uroplatus leaf-tailed geckos species radiation. Journal of Zoology 275: 423-440.

Citation: Raxworthy, C.J., Ratsoavina, F., Glaw, F. & Rabibisoa, N. 2011. Uroplatus ebenaui. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T172792A6919303. . Downloaded on 04 October 2015.
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