Scomberomorus tritor 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Scombridae

Scientific Name: Scomberomorus tritor (Cuvier, 1832)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English West African Spanish Mackerel, Mackerel, Spanish Mackerel, West African Mackerel
French Maquereau-bonite, Maquereau Bonite, Thazard Blanc
Spanish Carite Lusitánico, Carite Pintado, Garita
Apolectus immunis Bennett, 1831
Cybium tritor Cuvier, 1832
Scomberomorus argyreus Fowler, 1905
Taxonomic Source(s): Eschmeyer, W.N. (ed.). 2015. Catalog of Fishes. Updated 7 January 2015. Available at: (Accessed: 7 January 2015).
Taxonomic Notes: This species has been erroneously considered as a synonym of Scomberomorus maculatus by many authors.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2010-09-13
Assessor(s): Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E.
Reviewer(s): Russell, B. & Polidoro, B.
This species is known from the eastern Atlantic, and is caught mainly with purse seines. Although catch landings are not regularly reported, there is no current indication of decline. This species is listed as Least Concern.
For further information about this species, see TUNAS_SkiJumpEffect.pdf.
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Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is present in the eastern Atlantic from the Canary Islands and Senegal south through the Gulf of Guinea to Baía dos Tigres, in southern Angola. It is rarely found in the northern Mediterranean Sea, along the coasts of France and Italy.
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Equatorial Guinea; France; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Italy; Liberia; Mauritania; Monaco; Morocco; Nigeria; Sao Tomé and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Spain; Togo; Western Sahara
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – eastern central; Mediterranean and Black Sea
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):40
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:This species is taken throughout the Gulf of Guinea but catches are only reported from Ghana and Angola and range from 700 metric tonnes in 1978 to 4,412 metric tonnes in 1980, decreasing to 2,051 metric tonnes in 1981 (Collette and Nauen 1983). Reported worldwide landings range from a high of 5,060 tonnes in 1983 to 771 tonnes in 2005 (FAO 2009). However, these catch statistics are questionable because reporting is not consistent.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This is a pelagic, oceanodromous species that inhabits warm waters (Schneider 1990).  It enters coastal lagoons and feeds on clupeids particularly Ethmalosa fimbriata (Fagade and Olaniyan 1973). It reproduces in July to August in Mauritania (Maigret and Ly 1986) and April to October in Senegal (Cayre et al. 1993); and February to September in Guinea-Bissau (Kromer et al. 1994).

Length at maturity at 50% was estimated in Senegal for males to be 33.1 cm fork length (FL) and 34.1 cm FL for females (Diouf 1996). In Guinea-Bissau, length at 50% maturity was 33.5 cm FL for females and 32.2 cm FL for males (Kromer et al. 1994).

Maximum Size is 100 cm FL. The all-tackle game fish record is of a 6 kg fish caught off Grand Bereby, Ivory Coast in 1998 (IGFA 2011).
Movement patterns:Full Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This is a commercial fish species.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): This species is caught with mostly in purse seines. In the Mediterranean it is only incidentally caught by pelagic long lines.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures. Better reporting, and more catch and effort information is needed for most species of small tunas in the Atlantic.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.1. Marine Neritic - Pelagic
10. Marine Oceanic -> 10.1. Marine Oceanic - Epipelagic (0-200m)

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Food - human

Bibliography [top]

Banford, H.M., Bermingham, E., Collette, B.B. and McCafferty, SS. 1999. Phylogenetic systematics of the Scomberomorus regalis species group. Copeia 199: 596-613.

Cayré, P., Amon Kothias, J.B., Diouf, T. and Stretta, J.M. 1993. Biology of Tuna. In: A. Fontineau and J. Marcille (eds), Resources, fishing and biology of the tropical tunas of the Eastern Central Atlantic, FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 292, Rome.

Collette, B.B. 2001. Scombridae. In: K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds), The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific, pp. 3721-3756. FAO, Rome.

Collette, B.B. and Nauen, C.E. 1983. FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 2. Scombrids of the World: an annotated and illustrated catalogue of tunas, mackerels, bonitos and related species known to date. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Fisheries Synopsis number 125, volume 2.

Collette, B.B. and Russo, J.L. 1985. Morphology, systematics, and biology of the Spanish mackerels (Scomberomorus, Scombridae). Fishery Bulletin, U.S 82: 545-692.

Diouf, P.S. 1996. Les peuplements de poissons des milieux estuariens de l'Afrique de l'Ouest: L'exemple de l'estuaire hyperhalin du Sine-Saloum. Thèses et Documents Microfiches No.156, Université de Montpellier II.

Fagade, S.O. and Olaniyan, C.I.O. 1973. The food and feeding interrelationship of the fishes in the Lagos Lagoon. Journal of Fish Biology 1973(5): 205-225.

FAO. 2009. FishStat Plus Version 2.32. Universal Software for Fishery Statistics Time Series. Available at:

IGFA. 2014. World Record Game Fishes. International Game Fish Association, Dania Beach, Florida.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.2). Available at: (Accessed: 10 November 2011).

Kromer, J.L., Insali, P. and Gomes, M. 1994. Rio Grande de Buba - Bio-ecologie et parametres environnemenmtaux. UICN/ Ministere des Peches de Guinee-Bissau, Bissau.

Maigret, J. and Ly, B. 1986. Les poissons de mer de Mauritanie. Centre national de recherches oceanographiques et des peches (Mauritania) and Science Naturales, Compiègne, France.

Postel, E. 1955. Contribution à l'étude de la biologie de quelques Scombridae de l'Atlantique tropico-oriental. Ann. Stn. Océanogr. Salammbô 10: 168.

Schneider, W. 1990. Field guide to the commercial marine resources of the Gulf of Guinea. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO); Prepared and published with the support of the FAO Regional Office for Africa (RAFR), Rome, Italy.

STECF. 2009. Review of Scientific Advice for 2010 Part 2. Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries, Vigo, Spain.

Citation: Collette, B., Amorim, A.F., Boustany, A., Carpenter, K.E., de Oliveira Leite Jr., N., Di Natale, A., Fox, W., Fredou, F.L., Viera Hazin, F.H., Juan Jorda, M., Kada, O., Minte Vera, C., Miyabe, N., Nelson, R., Oxenford, H., Teixeira Lessa, R.P. & Pires Ferreira Travassos, P.E. 2011. Scomberomorus tritor. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2011: e.T170326A6749128. . Downloaded on 18 June 2018.
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