|Scientific Name:||Scyllarides squammosus|
|Species Authority:||(H. Milne Edwards, 1837)|
Scyllarus sieboldi De Haan, 1841
Scyllarus squammosus H. Milne Edwards, 1837
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Livingstone, S. & Richman, N.|
|Contributor(s):||Batchelor, A., De Silva, R., Dyer, E., Kasthala, G., Lutz, M.L., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., Soulsby, A.-M. & Whitton, F.|
Scyllarides squammosus is listed as Least Concern. This species has a broad distribution and is harvested in only small parts of its range. Ongoing fisheries in Australia have stringent management controls in place.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific region from East Africa to Japan, Hawaii, Melanesia, New Caledonia and Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, West Australia) (Holthuis 1991, DEWHA 2009). It is likely that this species has a wider distribution than is currently known.
The type locality of this species is Mauritius (Holthuis 1991).
Native:Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia); Fiji; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Marshall Islands; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island)); Mozambique; New Caledonia; Oman; Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, North Solomons, Papua New Guinea (main island group)); Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Hawaiian Is.); Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
There is insufficient population data available for this species. However, Chan (1998) described it as 'apparently nowhere abundant in the Western Central Pacific'. Comparatively, DiNardo and Moffitt (2007) state that it is currently the dominant lobster species in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The
|Habitat and Ecology:||
This nocturnal species inhabits reefs and rocky areas (Holthuis 1991). It shelters during the day, and forages at night where it feeds mainly on bivalves (Chan 1998, Lavalli et al. 2007). It has a maximum total length of 40 cm, although usually only reaches 20 cm (Holthuis 1991, Chan 1998). There are conflicting reports of the depth preferences of this species: Dinardo and Moffit (2007) suggest between 30 -120 m, whereas Holthuis (1991) and Chan (1998) suggest a shallower range of 5-80 m. This is also reflected in the 'most common' ranges, with 50 -70 m and 20-50m, respectively.
This gregarious species attains sexual maturity at a carapace length of 6.6 - 6.7 cm, although variation was found between reefs (Hearn et al. 2007, Lavalli et al. 2007). Ovigerous females occur throughout the year with peak abundance between May and July, and their fecundity ranges from 54,000 - 227,000 eggs per female (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007, Sekiguchi et al. 2007). The phyllosoma of this species remain pelagic for 3 - 6 months prior to transforming into benthic juveniles (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).
|Use and Trade:||
Its large size and well developed fleshy tail make this species, like other species of the genus, a sought-after delicacy (Holthuis 1991). Below is a breakdown of use and trade within distinct parts of this species' range.
In Hawaii there has been a commercial lobster fishery in operation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for 20 years. The fishery has been primarily targeting this species and the Spiny Lobster (Panulirus marginatus). Landings of all species were showing reductions, and in 2000 the NWHI fishery was closed as a precautionary measure due to increasing uncertainty of the population models used to assess stock status. Later on that year, the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established. This may prohibit commercial lobster fishing in the NWHI indefinitely (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007). For catch data from the NWHI fishery whilst it was in operation see DiNardo and Moffitt (2007).
In 1997, the Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS), authorised a developmental trap fishery in southeast Queensland. The fishery was specifically targeting this species and S. haanii, after it was believed that an undeveloped Slipper Lobster (Scyllarides spp.) resource existed in the waters to the south of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). Prior to that time these species were landed only as a minor by-catch of prawn and scallop trawl fisheries (these species have now been removed from the "Permitted Trawl Species" able to be retained by trawl fishers) (Sumpton et al. 2004).
Development of this trap fishery began in July 1999, and was monitored for an initial period ending June 2003. Participants in the fishery required a permit that was renewed annually (subject to satisfactory performance by the permit holders). However, by 2004 there were no active harvesting permits and further development of the fishery was awaiting discussions between fisheries managers and stakeholders (Sumpton et al. 2004).
As part of the developmental fishery it was originally proposed that other lobster species would also be able to be taken; but to date only Scyllarides spp. and a limited number of Panulirus spp. have been caught. To some extent this was a result of the fishery's limitations to trawl relatively shallow depths < 200 m, which is not the preferred habitat of many of the species capable of entering baited traps (Sumpton et al. 2004)
In New Caledonia local fisherman use a nightfishing technique to harvest three species:one subspecies of Palinurids (Panulirus penicillatus, P. longipes bispinosus and P. ornatus), and two Scyllarid species (this species and Parribacus caledonicus,Coutures and Chauvet 2003). This is achieved by diving with a water torch over the reefs (Coutures and Chauvet 2003). The catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) data for these fishermen was found to be 1.32 kg/fisherman/night, although this increased to 2.16 kg kg/fisherman/night for more efficient fishermen (Coutures and Chauvet 2003).
The Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) considers that the fishery does not pose a significant threat to the sustainability of this species. The fishery landed less than 5 tonnes of Slipper Lobster each year between 1998 and 2001, and in 2002/2003 no Slipper Lobsters were landed (Sumpton et al. 2004).The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 which may prohibit commercial lobster fishing in the NWHI indefinitely, therefore this fishery does not pose a continuing threat to this species (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).
A decline in global captures of Scyllaridae has been documented, although information on specific species is lacking (Spanier and Lavalli 2007).
The management plan of the Hawaiian fishery incorporated closed seasons, minimum size limits, no retention of egg bearing females, the incorporation of escape vents in pots, accurate recording of log data, and revised yearly quotas (Pooley and Kawamoto 1998, Sumpton et al. 2004).
In the event that the trap fishery in southeast Queensland progresses beyond developmental status, a formal process would be undertaken to develop appropriate management strategies. Within the area of the fishery, a number of closed waters have been declared under the Fisheries Regulations 1995, and no fishing is allowed in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). All commercial fishers in Queensland have a legal obligation to provide information about their fishing activity via daily logbook reporting (Sumpton et al. 2004).
Other regulations implemented would include:
As the Queensland trap fishery is only operated on a very limited developmental scale (a time frame of only four years), the lobster stocks are not likely to have been seriously affected. The current permit conditions provide the Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) with extensive powers to ensure the sustainable management of the fishery. It allows them to suspend or cancel permits if a deleterious effect on stocks of Slipper and Spiny Lobster, or any other fish species (including bycatch and byproduct) has been caused, or is imminent, or may reasonably be expected due to activities under the permit' (Sumpton et al. 2004). For a comprehensive report on the Queensland developmental trap fishery, see Sumpton et al. (2004).
Chan, T.Y. 1998. Lobsters. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks: 973-1044.
Coutures, E., and Chauvet, C. 2003. Study of an original lobster fishery in New Caledonia (Crustacea: Palinuridae & Scyllaridae). Atoll Research Bulletin No. 504.
Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA). 2009. Australian Faunal Directory. Canberra Available at: www.environment.gov.au.
DiNardo, G.T. and Moffitt, R.B. 2007. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery: A Targeted Slipper Lobster Fishery. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 243-262. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.
Hearn, A., Toral-Granda, V., Martinez, C. and Reck, G. 2007. Biology and Fishery of the Galapagos Slipper Lobster. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 287-308. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.
Holthuis, L.B. 1991. Marine lobsters of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries known to date. FAO species catalogue 13(125). FAO, Rome.
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Lavalli, K.L., Spanier, E. and Grasso, F. 2007. Behaviour and Sensory Biology of Slipper Lobsters. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 133-182. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.
Milne Edwards, H. 1837. Histoires naturelles des Crustaces, comprenant l'anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux. Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.
Pooley, S.G. and Kawamoto, K.E. 1998. Annual Report of the 1995-97 Western Pacific Lobster Fishery. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu.
Sekiguchi, H., Booth, J.D. and Webber, W.R. 2007. Early Life Histories of Slipper Lobsters. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 69-90. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.
Spanier, E. and Lavalli, K.L. 2007. Slipper Lobster Fisheries - Present Status and Future Perspectives. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 377-392. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.
Sumpton, W., Campbell, M., McLennan, M., Gaddes, S., Rayn, S. and Hagedoorn, W. 2004. Ecological Assessment of the Developmental Slipper Lobster Fishery in South-East Queensland Waters. Queensland Government Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.
|Citation:||Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A. 2013. Scyllarides squammosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 27 November 2014.|