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Scyllarides squammosus

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA ARTHROPODA MALACOSTRACA DECAPODA SCYLLARIDAE

Scientific Name: Scyllarides squammosus
Species Authority: (H. Milne Edwards, 1837)
Common Name/s:
English Blunt Slipper Lobster
French Cigale Grenue
Spanish Cigarra Nato
Synonym/s:
Scyllarus sieboldi De Haan, 1841
Scyllarus squammosus H. Milne Edwards, 1837

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2011
Date Assessed: 2009-12-03
Assessor/s: Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A.
Reviewer/s: Collen, B., Livingstone, S. & Richman, N.
Contributor/s: Batchelor, A., De Silva, R., Dyer, E., Kasthala, G., Lutz, M.L., McGuinness, S., Milligan, H.T., Soulsby, A.-M. & Whitton, F.
Justification:
Scyllarides squammosus is listed as Least Concern. This species has a broad distribution and is harvested in only small parts of its range. Ongoing fisheries in Australia have stringent management controls in place.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific region from East Africa to Japan, Hawaii, Melanesia, New Caledonia and Australia (Queensland, New South Wales, West Australia) (Holthuis 1991, DEWHA 2009). It is likely that this species has a wider distribution than is currently known.
The type locality of this species is Mauritius (Holthuis 1991).
Countries:
Native:
Australia (New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia); Fiji; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Marshall Islands; Mauritius (Mauritius (main island)); Mozambique; New Caledonia; Oman; Papua New Guinea (Bismarck Archipelago, North Solomons, Papua New Guinea (main island group)); Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Hawaiian Is.); Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is insufficient population data available for this species. However, Chan (1998) described it as 'apparently nowhere abundant in the Western Central Pacific'. Comparatively, DiNardo and Moffitt (2007) state that it is currently the dominant lobster species in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands populations of this species should be treated as one metapopulation (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This nocturnal species inhabits reefs and rocky areas (Holthuis 1991). It shelters during the day, and forages at night where it feeds mainly on bivalves (Chan 1998, Lavalli et al. 2007). It has a maximum total length of 40 cm, although usually only reaches 20 cm (Holthuis 1991, Chan 1998). There are conflicting reports of the depth preferences of this species: Dinardo and Moffit (2007) suggest between 30 -120 m, whereas Holthuis (1991) and Chan (1998) suggest a shallower range of 5-80 m. This is also reflected in the 'most common' ranges, with 50 -70 m and 20-50m, respectively.

This gregarious species attains sexual maturity at a carapace length of 6.6 - 6.7 cm, although variation was found between reefs (Hearn et al. 2007, Lavalli et al. 2007). Ovigerous females occur throughout the year with peak abundance between May and July, and their fecundity ranges from 54,000 - 227,000 eggs per female (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007, Sekiguchi et al. 2007). The phyllosoma of this species remain pelagic for 3 - 6 months prior to transforming into benthic juveniles (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).

Systems: Marine

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

The Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) considers that the fishery does not pose a significant threat to the sustainability of this species. The fishery landed less than 5 tonnes of Slipper Lobster each year between 1998 and 2001, and in 2002/2003  no Slipper Lobsters were landed (Sumpton et al. 2004).

The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) Coral Reef Ecosystem Reserve was established in 2000 which may prohibit commercial lobster fishing in the NWHI indefinitely, therefore this fishery does not pose a continuing threat to this species (DiNardo and Moffitt 2007).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions:

A decline in global captures of Scyllaridae has been documented, although information on specific species is lacking (Spanier and Lavalli 2007).

Hawaii

The management plan of the Hawaiian fishery incorporated closed seasons, minimum size limits, no retention of egg bearing females, the incorporation of escape vents in pots, accurate recording of log data, and revised yearly quotas (Pooley and Kawamoto 1998, Sumpton et al. 2004).

Queensland

In the event that the trap fishery in southeast Queensland progresses beyond developmental status, a formal process would be undertaken to develop appropriate management strategies. Within the area of the fishery, a number of closed waters have been declared under the Fisheries Regulations 1995, and no fishing is allowed in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP). All commercial fishers in Queensland have a legal obligation to provide information about their fishing activity via daily logbook reporting (Sumpton et al. 2004).

Other regulations implemented would include:

  • The size of the apparatus in waters shallower than 100 m: 1 ­m­3 in overall volume, and in waters 100 m and deeper 195 cm x 120 cm x 120 cm
  • Floats to be at least 15 cm in diameter
  • Floats for traps set in strings - orange in colour
  • Floats for single traps - any colour except orange
  • Floats must have markings showing the owner?s boat name and boat marking
  • Not more than 200 traps per operator
  • Each operator may have 210 traps in possession but those in excess of 200 must be unassembled
  • In waters less than 20 m - traps set singly
  • In waters 20 - 100 m  set in strings of up to 25
  • In waters over 100 m  set in strings of up to 50
  • It is prohibited to take berried females or setose females (Sumpton et al. 2004).

As the Queensland trap fishery is only operated on a very limited developmental scale (a time frame of only four years), the lobster stocks are not likely to have been seriously affected. The current permit conditions provide the Queensland Fisheries Service (QFS) with extensive powers to ensure the sustainable management of the fishery. It allows them to suspend or cancel permits if a deleterious effect on stocks of Slipper and Spiny Lobster, or any other fish species (including bycatch and byproduct) has been caused, or is imminent, or may reasonably be expected due to activities under the permit' (Sumpton et al. 2004). For a comprehensive report on the Queensland developmental trap fishery, see Sumpton et al. (2004).



Bibliography [top]

Chan, T.Y. 1998. Lobsters. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Vol. 2. Cephalopods, crustaceans, holothurians and sharks: 973-1044.

Coutures, E., and Chauvet, C. 2003. Study of an original lobster fishery in New Caledonia (Crustacea: Palinuridae & Scyllaridae). Atoll Research Bulletin No. 504.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (DEWHA). 2009. Australian Faunal Directory. Canberra Available at: www.environment.gov.au.

DiNardo, G.T. and Moffitt, R.B. 2007. The Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Fishery: A Targeted Slipper Lobster Fishery. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 243-262. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.

Hearn, A., Toral-Granda, V., Martinez, C. and Reck, G. 2007. Biology and Fishery of the Galapagos Slipper Lobster. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 287-308. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.

Holthuis, L.B. 1991. Marine lobsters of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of species of interest to fisheries known to date. FAO species catalogue 13(125). FAO, Rome.

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Lavalli, K.L., Spanier, E. and Grasso, F. 2007. Behaviour and Sensory Biology of Slipper Lobsters. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 133-182. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.

Milne Edwards, H. 1837. Histoires naturelles des Crustaces, comprenant l'anatomie, la physiologie et la classification de ces animaux. Librairie encyclopédique de Roret, Paris.

Pooley, S.G. and Kawamoto, K.E. 1998. Annual Report of the 1995-97 Western Pacific Lobster Fishery. Southwest Fisheries Science Center, Honolulu.

Sekiguchi, H., Booth, J.D. and Webber, W.R. 2007. Early Life Histories of Slipper Lobsters. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 69-90. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.

Spanier, E. and Lavalli, K.L. 2007. Slipper Lobster Fisheries - Present Status and Future Perspectives. In: Lavalli, K.L. and Spanier, E (eds), The Biology and Fisheries of the Slipper Lobster, pp. 377-392. CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, Florida.

Sumpton, W., Campbell, M., McLennan, M., Gaddes, S., Rayn, S. and Hagedoorn, W. 2004. Ecological Assessment of the Developmental Slipper Lobster Fishery in South-East Queensland Waters. Queensland Government Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries.

Citation: Butler, M., Cockcroft, A. & MacDiarmid, A. 2011. Scyllarides squammosus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 April 2014.
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