Map_thumbnail_large_font

Protopterus annectens

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA SARCOPTERYGII LEPIDOSIRENIFORMES PROTOPTERIDAE

Scientific Name: Protopterus annectens
Species Authority: (Owen, 1839)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English African Lungfish, Mudfish, Lungfish, Tana Lungfish, West African Lungfish
Synonym(s):
Lepidosiren annectens Owen, 1839
Lepidosiren tobal Castelnau, 1855
Protopterus anguilliformis Owen, 1841
Taxonomic Notes: Two subspecies are known - P. a. annectens and P. a. brieni.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Snoeks, J., Laleye, P. & Contreras-MacBeath, T.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)
Justification:
P. annectens has been assessed as Least Concern because it has a very large range, and there are no known widespread threats to the species.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: P. a. annectens is found in Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Cote d'Ivoire, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo; this subspecies is found in, but not limited to, the Volta, Chad, Bandama and Comoé basins, and temporary tributaries of Chari River.

P. a. brieni is found in Angola, Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe; this sub-species is distributed throughout the upper Congo River (Luapula), middle and lower Zambezi basin and all east coast rivers south to the Limpopo River, the upper Cubango and Okavango system and Lake Rukwa. This subspecies has also been translocated to additional sites in the Kruger National Park in South Africa (Ref. 7248).
Countries:
Native:
Angola (Angola); Benin; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Kenya; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Sudan; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Introduced:
South Africa
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Currently, there is a lack of detailed population numbers and the global trend is unknown.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: P. annectens is a demersal and potamodromous (migrates within fresh water only) species, found in marginal swamps and backwaters of rivers and lakes. It normally lives on flood plains, and when these dry up it secretes a thin slime around itself which dries into a cocoon.
Systems: Freshwater

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is of minor importance to commercial fisheries. A large amount of scientific research has been carried out on the species.  It is assumed that some specimens are bred in captivity for research purposes, however the proportion of research/food utilisation is not known therefore a 50/50 ratio is assumed.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no threats known to be currently affecting this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Regional red listing for West Africa is Least Concern.

Bibliography [top]

Adams-Sow, A. 1996. Poissons et Pêches du Fleuve Sénégal. Fédération des Paysans Organisés du Département des Paysans Organisés du Département de Bakel. Dakar, Sénégal.

Adite, A. and van Thielen, R. 1995. Ecology and fish catches in natural lakes of Benin, West Africa. Environmental Biology of Fish 43: 381-391.

Anon. 1997. Fish registrations within the museum database of the Vertebrate Section of the Royal Museum for Central Africa. Tervuren, Belgium.

Anon. 1999. Fish collection database of the National Museums of Kenya. National Museums of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi.

Anon. 1999. Fish collection database of the Natural History Museum, London. Natural History Museum, London.

Anon. 2000. Fish collection database of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology, Grahamstown, South Africa. Grahamstown.

Anon. 2000. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Zimbabwe. National Museum of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box 240, Bulaway.

Anon. 2000. The icthyological collection of the Zoological Museum Hamburg (ZMH). Division of Icthyology and Herpetology, Zoological.

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution)..

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen. University of Copenhagen.

Anon. 2002. Fish collection database of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History, Central Park W.

Anon. 2003. Fish collection of the Royal Ontario Museum..

Arkhipchuk, V.V. 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Babiker, M.M. 1979. Respiratory behaviour, oxygen consumption and relative dependence on aerial respiration in the African lungfish (Protopterus annectens, Owen) and an airbreathing teleost (Clarias lazera, C.). Hydrobiologia 65(2): 177-187.

Baensch, H.A. and Riehl, R. 1985. Aquarien atlas. Band 2. Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde GmbH, Germany.

Baensch, H.A. and Riehl, R. 1991. Aquarien atlas. Band 3. Mergus, Verlag für Natur- und Heimtierkunde GmbH, Germany.

Berra, T. 2001. Freshwater Fish Distribution. Academic Press, San Diego, California.

Blache, J. 1964. Les poissons du bassin du Tchad et du bassin adjacent du Mayo Kebbi. Étude systématique et biologique..

Blache, J. and Miton, F. 1962. Première contribution à la connaissance de la pêche dans le bassin hydrographique Logone-Chari - Lac Tchad..

Boulenger, G.A. 1900. List of the fishes collected by Mr. J.S. Budgett in the River Gambia. Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London: 511-516.

Boulenger, G.A. 1902. Second account of the fishes collected by Dr. W.J. Ansorge in the Niger delta. Proceedings of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society of London 2: 324-330.

Boulenger, G.A. 1907. List of the fishes collected by Mr. J.S. Budgett in the river Gambia. In: G. Kerr (ed.), The work of John Samuel, pp. 95-99.

Boulenger, G.A. 1909. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume I. Printed by order of the Trustees, London.

Boulenger, G.A. 1916. Catalogue of the fresh-water fishes of Africa in the British Museum (Natural History). Volume IV. London.

Brown, M.E. 1957. Experimental studies on growth. In: M.E. Brown (ed.), The physiology of fishes. Volume I. Metabolism, pp. 361-400. Academic Press, New York.

Bruton, M.N., Jackson, P.B.N. and Skelton, P.H. 1982. Pocket guide to the freshwater fishes of southern Africa. Centaur Publishers, Cape Town.

Budgett, J.S. 1900. Observations on Polypterus and Protopterus. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 10: 236-240.

Budgett, J.S. 1901. On the breeding-habits of some West-African fishes, with an account of the external features in development of Protopterus annectens, and a description of the larva of Polypterus lapradei. Transactions of the Zoological Society of London 16(2): 115-136.

Budgett, J.S. 1901. The habits and development of some West African fishes. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 11: 102-104.

Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished.

Chabanaud, P. 1934. Mission Jean Thomas en Afrique Équatoriale Française (septembre 1929 à mai 1930): Poissons (premier mémoire). Faune Colonie Francais 5(4): 195-231.

Copley, H. 1952. The game fishes of Africa. H.F. & G. Witherby Ltd, London.

Coulibaly, N.D. 2000. Noms communs et quelques significations pour les poissons commerciaux peches dans les Hauts-Bassins du fleuve Volta au Burkina Faso..

Coulibaly, N.D. 2003. Common names of commercial fish species of the upper Volta Basin in Burkina Faso. In: M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds), Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep.

Daget, J. 1948. La collection de poissons d'eau douce de l'I.F.A.N. Cat. Bulletin le L' Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire 3: 1-59.

Daget, J. 1954. Les poissons du Niger supérieur..

Daget, J. 1957. Données récentes sur la biologie des poissons dans le delta central du Niger. Hydrobiologia 9(4): 321-347.

Daget, J. 1957. Les poissons. Les eaux et les poissons de Haute-Volta: 113-168.

Daget, J. 1959. Les poissons du Niger supérieur (première note complémentaire). Bulletin le L' Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (A) 21(2): 664-688.

Daget, J. 1960. La faune ichtyologique du bassin de la Gambie. Bulletin le L' Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (A) 22(2): 610-619.

Daget, J. 1960. Poissons de la Volta Noire et de la Haute Comoé (Mission d'Aubenton-Arnoult, oct.-déc. 1959). Bulletin du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle, Paris, 2e série 32(4): 320-33.

Daget, J. 1961. Le parc national du Niokolo-Koba (deuxième fascicule). XXXV: Poissons. Mémoire Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire 62: 325-372.

Daget, J. 1962. Les poissons du Fouta Dialon et de la Basse Guinée..

Daget, J. 1969. Poissons d'eau douce du Sénégal récoltés par MM. A. Villiers et C. Reizer. Bulletin du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle, Paris 40(6): 1114.

Daget, J. and Iltis, A. 1965. Poissons de Côte d'Ivoire (eaux douces et saumâtres)..

Daget, J. and Stauch, A. 1963. Poissons de la partie camerounaise du bassin de la Bénoué. Mémoire Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire 68: 85-107.

Dankwa, H.R. 2003. Traditional knowledge of freshwater fishes in some fishing communities in Ghana. In: M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds), Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep.

Dankwa, H.R., Abban, E.K. and Teugels, G.G. 1999. Freshwater fishes of Ghana: identification, distribution, ecological and economic importance. Annales Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Serie IN-8, Sciences Zoologiques 283: 53.

Duméril, A. 1858. Reptiles et poissons de l'Afrique occidentale. Étude précédée de considérations générales sur leur distribution géographique. Archives for Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 10: 137-161;241-268.

El-Hakeem, O.H. 1970. The occurrence of Protopterus annectens in Western Sudan. Revue de zoologie et de botanique africaines 82(3-4): 271-279.

El Hakeem, O.H. 1979. A lungfish that survives over three and half years of starvation under aquatic conditions. Zoologischer Anzeiger 202(1-2): 17-19.

Fang, P.W. 1945. Poissons d'Afrique recueillis par Henri Lhote, chargé de la mission Lebaudy, 1933. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 69: 191-192.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at: www.fishbase.org.

Gibbons, S. 1999. Collect fish on stamps. Stanley Gibbons Ltd, London and Ringwood.

Gosse, J.-P. 1984. Protopteridae. In: J. Daget, J.-P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds), Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA), pp. 8-17. ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren.

Grabda, E. and Heese, T. 1991. Polskie nazewnictwo popularne kraglouste i ryby. Cyclostomata et Pisces. Koszalin, Poland.

Gras, R. 1961. Liste des poissons du Bas-Dahomey faisant partie de la collection du laboratoire d'hydrobiologie du service des eaux, forêts et chasses du Dahomey. Bulletin le L' Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire (A) 23(2): 572-586.

Günther, A.C.L.G. 1880. An introduction to the study of fishes. Today & Tomorrow's Book Agency, New Delhi.

Hanel, L. and Novák, J. 2001. Ceské názvy živocichu V. Ryby a rybovití obratlovci (Pisces) II., nozdratí (Sarcopterygii), paprskoploutví (Actinopterygii) [chrupavcití (Chondrostei), kostnatí (Neopterygii): kostlíni (Semionotiformes) – bezostní (Clupeiformes)]. Národní muzeum (zoologické oddeleí),, Praha.

Holden, M. and Reed, W. 1972. West African freshwater fish. Longman Group Ltd, London.

Holden, M.J. 1963. The populations of fish in dry season pools of the River Sokoto. 19: 1-58.

Hopson, A.J. 1967. The Fisheries of Lake Chad. In: W. Reed (ed.), Fish and fisheries of northern Nigeria, pp. 189-200. Ministry of Agriculture Northern Nigeria.

Hureau, J.-C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. Atlas Preliminaire des Poissons d'Eau Douce de France. Conseil Supérieur de la Pêche,, pp. 225-227. Ministère de l'Environnement, CEMAGREF et Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris.

Ita, E.O. 1984. Kainji (Nigeria). In: J.M. Kapetsky and T. Petr (eds), Status of African reservoir fisheries, pp. 43-103. CIFA Tech. Pap. 10.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Jenness, J. 1967. Appendix II. Kainji area fish terms. In: W. Reed (ed.), Fish and fisheries of northern Nigeria, pp. 213-216. Ministry of Agriculture Northern Nigeria.

Johnels, A.G. 1954. Notes on fishes from the Gambia River. Arkiv för zoologi 6(17): 327-411.

Johnels, A.G. and Svensson, G.S.O. 1954. On the biology of Protopterus annectens (Owen). Arkiv för zoologi 7(7): 131-164.

Kamara, A.B. 1977. A list of the estuarine and marine fishes and some shellfishes of Sierra Leone, with their common names in either Krio or English. In: W. Okera (ed.), Bulletin of the Institute of Marine Biology and Oceanography, pp. 47-56. Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone.

Klinkhardt, M, Tesche, M. and Greven, H. 1995. Database of fish chromosomes..

Laë, R. 1995. Climatic and anthropogenic effects on fish biodiversity and fish yields in the central delta of the Niger River. Aquatic Living Resources 8(1): 43-58.

Laleye, P., Chikou, A., Philippart, J.C., Teugels, G. and Vandewalle, P. 2004. Etude de la diversite ichtyologique du bassin du fleuve Oueme au Benin (Afrique de l'Ouest). Cybium 28(4): 329-339.

Lévêque, C. 1990. Protopteridae. In: C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds), Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Tome I. Coll. Faune Tropicale n° XXVIII, pp. 76-78. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, and O.R.S.T.O.M., Paris.

Lévêque, C. and Paugy, D. 1984. Guide des poissons d'eau douce de la zone du programme de lutte contre l'onchocercose en Afrique de l'Ouest..

Leveque, C. and Paugy, D. 2003. Protopteridae. In: D. Paugy, C. Leveque and G. Teugels (eds), The fresh and brackish water fish of West Africa, pp. 97-100. IRD & MRAC, Paris and Tervuren.

Lévêque, C., Paugy, D. and Teugels, G.G. 1990. Clé des familles - Key to families. In: C. Lévêque, D. Paugy and G.G. Teugels (eds), Faune des poissons d'eaux douce et saumâtres de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, pp. 35-55.

Lévêque, C., Paugy, D. and Teugels, G.G. 1990. Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest. Tome 1..

Lévêque, C., Paugy, D. and Teugels, G.G. 1991. Annotated check-list of the freshwater fishes of the Nilo-sudan river basins, in Africa. Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale 24(2): 131-154.

Lowe-McConnell, R.H. 1972. Keys for the field identification of freshwater fishes likely to occur in or above the new man-made lakes, Lake Volta in Ghana and the Kainji Lake on the River Niger in Nigeria. Ghana Universities Press, Accra.

Mwape, L.M. 2003. Bemba local names of lake fishes in northern Zambia. In: M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds), Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep. 14.

Neiland, A.E., Goddard, J.P. and Reid, G.McG. 1990. The impact of damming, drought and over-exploitation on the conservation of marketable fish stocks of the River Benue, Nigeria. Journal of Fish Biology (suppl. A) 37: 203-205.

Nigrelli, R.F. 1959. Longevity of fishes in captivity, with special reference to those kept in the New York Aquarium. In: G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen and M. O'Connor (eds), Ciba Foundation Colloquium on Ageing: the life span of animals, pp. 212-230. Churchill, London.

Okeyo, D.O. 1998. Updating names, distribution and ecology of riverine fish of Kenya in the Athi-Galana-Sabaki River drainage system. Naga ICLARM Q 21(1): 44-53.

Olaosebikan, B.D. and Raji, A. 1998. Field guide to Nigerian freshwater fishes..

Oti, E.E. 2003. Studies on the ichthyofauna of Ehoma Floodplain, Afikpo Eastern Nigeria. In: M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily and D. Pauly (eds), Fish biodiversity: local studies as basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish. Res. Rep. 14.

Pandaré, D., Niang, S., Diadhiou, H. and Capdeville, B. 1997. Ichtyofauna of Casamance: reproduction and distribution according to the salinity gradient. Bulletin le L' Institut Fondamental d'Afrique Noire ( A. Sci. Nat) 49(1).

Paugy, D. and Bénech, V. 1989. Les poissons d'eau douce des bassins côtiers du Togo (Afrique de l'Ouest). Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale 22(4): 295-316.

Paugy, D., Traoré, K. and Diouf, P.S. 1994. Faune ichtyologique des eaux douces d'Afrique de l'Ouest. In: G.G. Teugels, J.F. Guégan and J.J. Albaret (eds), Biological diversity of African fresh- and brackish water fishes., pp. 35-66. Annales Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Sciences Zoologiques.

Pellegrin, J. 1904. Poissons du Chari et du lac Tchad, récoltés par la mission Chevalier-Decorse. Bulletin du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle, Paris 10: 309-313.

Pellegrin, J. 1907. Les poissons du lac Tchad. Revue Scientifique: 5e série 7(20): 614-619.

Pellegrin, J. 1914. Les poissons du bassin du Tchad. Émile Larose, Paris.

Pellegrin, J. 1919. Poissons du Gribingui recueillis par M. Baudon. Description de sept espèces nouvelles. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 44(5-7): 201-214.

Pellegrin, J. 1923. Les poissons des eaux douces de l'Afrique occidentale (du Sénégal au Niger). Larose, Paris.

Pellegrin, J. 1924. Poissons du Niger recueillis par M. Jean Thomas. Description de deux espèces nouvelles. Bulletin du Musée royal d'histoire naturelle, Paris 30(6): 457-463.

Pellegrin, J. 1926. Contribution à l'étude de la faune ichtyologique du Niger et de la Guinée française d'après les envois de M. Jean Thomas. le Bulletin du Comité d'Études historiques et scientifiques de l'AOF 9(1): 52-77.

Pfaff, J.R. 1933. Report on the fishes collected by Mr. Harry Madsen during Professor O. Olufsen's expedition to French Sudan in the years 1927-28. Videnskabelige Meddelelser Dansk Naturhistorisk Forening 94: 273-315.

Poll, M. 1954. Zoogéographie des protoptères et des polyptères. Bulletin de la Société Zoologique de France 79(4): 282-289.

Poll, M. 1961. Révision systématique et raciation géographique des Protopteridae de l'Afrique centrale. Annales Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Serie IN-8, Sciences Zoologiques.

Rass, T.S. 1983. Fish. Moscow: Prosveschenie.

Reed, W. 1967. Fish and fisheries of northern Nigeria. Ministry of Agriculture Northern Nigeria.

Reid, M.G. and Sydenham, H. 1979. A checklist of Lower Benue river fishes and an ichthyogeographical review of the Benue River (West Africa). Journal of Natural History 13(1): 41-67.

Reizer C. 1971. Contribution à l'étude hydrobiologique du Bas-Sénégal, premieres recommandations d'aménagement halieutique. Centre Technique Forestier Tropical, Nogent-sur-Ma.

Riede, K. 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the R&D-Projekt 808 05 081. Federa.

Roberts, T.R. 1967. A provisional check-list of the fresh-water fishes of the Volta Basin, with notes on species of possible economic importance. Journal of the West African Science Association 12(1): 10-18.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada..

Roman, B. 1966. Les poissons des hauts-bassins de la Volta..

Roman, B. 1972. La Haute-Volta, carrefour ichthyologique. Notes et Documents Voltaïques 6(1): 3-24.

Roman, B. 1974. Complement d'information sur les poissons des hauts-bassins du fleuve Volta (première note). Notes et Documents Voltaïques 7(4): 37-61.

Samb, B. 1990. pers. comm. Centre de Recherches Océanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye, Dakar, Sénégal.

Seegers, L., De Vos, L. and Okeyo, D.O. 2003. Annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Kenya (excluding the lacustrine haplochromines from Lake Victoria). Journal of the East African Natural History Society 92: 11-47.

Skelton, P.H. 1994. Diversity and distribution of freshwater fishes in East and Southern Africa. In: G.G. Teugels, J.F. Guégan and J.J. Albaret (eds), Biological diversity of African fresh- and brackish water fishes, pp. 95-131. Annales Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique, Sciences Zoologiques.

Stauch, A. 1966. Le bassin camerounais de la Bénoué et sa pêche. Mémoire O.R.S.T.O.M. 15: 152.

Svensson, G.S.O. 1933. Fresh water fishes from the Gambia River (British West Africa). Results of the Swedish Expedition 1931. Handlingar, Stockholm.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

Sydenham, D.H.J. 1977. The qualitative composition and longitudinal zonation of the fish fauna of the river Ogun, Western Nigeria. Revue de zoologie africaines 91(4): 974-996.

Teugels, G.G., Lévêque, C., Paugy, D. and Traoré, K. 1988. État des connaissances sur la faune ichtyologique des bassins côtiers de Côte d'Ivoire et de l'ouest du Ghana. Revue d'Hydrobiologie Tropicale 21(3): 221-237.

Thurston, R.V. and Gehrke, P.C. 1993. Respiratory oxygen requirements of fishes: description of OXYREF, a data file based on test results reported in the published literature. In: R.C. Russo & R.V. Thurston (ed.), Fish Physiology, Toxicology, and Water Quality Management. Proceedings of an International Symposium, Sacramento, California, USA, September 18-19, 1990, pp. 95-108. US Environmental Protection Agency EPA/600/R-93/157.

Trewavas, E. 1954. The presence in Africa east of the rift valleys of two species of Protopterus, P. annectens and P. amphibius. Annales du Musee du Congo Belge Tervuren (Belgique) Sciences Zoologiques, serie 4 1: 83-100.

Trewavas, E. and Irvine, F.R. 1947. Fresh-water fishes. In: F.R. Irvine (ed.), The fishes and fisheries of the Gold Coast, pp. 221-282. The Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.

Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo (versio 10/03). Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.

Visser, S.A. 1973. Preimpoundment features of the Kainji area and their possible influence on the ecology of the newly formed lake. In: W.C. Ackermann, G.F. White and E.B. Worthington (eds), Man-made lakes: their problems and environmental effects, pp. 590-595. AGU Geophys. Monogr.

Welman, J.B. 1948. Preliminary survey of the freshwater fisheries of Nigeria. The Government Printer, Lagos.

Wheeler, A. 1977. Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH & Co. Stuttgart.

Wickbom, T. 1945. Cytological studies on Dipnoi, Urodela, Anura, and Emys. Hereditas 31: 241.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Yaro, I. 1967. Appendix I. Common names of local fish in English, Hausa, Nupe, Ijaw and Kanuri. In: W. Reed (ed.), Fish and fisheries of northern Nigeria, pp. 203-212. Ministry of Agriculture Northern Nigeria.


Citation: Snoeks, J., Laleye, P. & Contreras-MacBeath, T. 2009. Protopterus annectens. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided