Amphilophus zaliosus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cichlidae

Scientific Name: Amphilophus zaliosus (Barlow, 1976)
Common Name(s):
English Arrow Cichlid
Spanish Mojarra Flecha
Cichlasoma zaliosum Barlow, 1976

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Snoeks, J., Laleye, P. & Contreras-MacBeath, T.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)
A. zaliosus exists at only one location, Lake Apoyo, which covers an area of 21.2 km². In addition to this, due to an introduced species in Lake Apoyo, and increasing incidences of parasites in the native fish of the lake, it is suspected that A. zaliosus is being negatively impacted by a continuing decline in habitat quality, and the number of mature individuals in the population.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to Lake Apoyo on the Atlantic slope of Nicaragua. Lake Apoyo covers an area of 21.2 km².
Countries occurrence:
Nicaragua (Nicaragua (mainland))
Additional data:
Number of Locations:1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The global population is decreasing, although detailed numbers are lacking.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A. zaliosus is a benthopelagic species.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: A. zaliosus is also a commercial aquarium fish, which can spawn in captivity. It is also used in behavioural research.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The significant presence of an introduced species, the Nile tilapia (O. niloticus), in Lake Apoyo from early 1990s, is posing a threat to native species of the lake, by occupying sites that some of the native species have been using for reproduction and food. In addition, there are increasing incidences of parasites among many of the fish in Lake Apoyo. Researchers suspect that tilapia is the vector for the parasite (Canonico et al. 2005).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Basic research actions are needed into the species life histories: biology, habitat status and population range. Currently, being know from one location only that is under threat from invasive species, the establishment and maintenance of protected areas are required for the survival of this species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Oreochromis niloticus ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 International : ✓ 

♦  Research
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Canonico, G.C., Arthington, A., McCrary, J.K. and Thieme, M L. 2005. The effects of introduced tilapias on native biodiversity. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems 15(5): 463 -483.

Conkel, D. 1993. Cichlids of North and Central America. T.F.H. Publications, Inc, Neptune City, New Jersey, USA.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

Gutiérrez, A.T. and Reaser, J.K. 2005. Linkages Between Development Assistance and Invasive Alien Species in Freshwater Systems in Southeast Asia. A Report & Resource Guide for the U.S. Agency for International Development. USAID Asia and Near East Bureau, Washington, DC.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Kullander, S.O. 2003. Cichlidae (Cichlids). In: R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds), Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America, pp. 605-654. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada..

Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo. Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Citation: Snoeks, J., Laleye, P. & Contreras-MacBeath, T. 2009. Amphilophus zaliosus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T169382A6615155. . Downloaded on 18 September 2018.
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