Diapoma terofali 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Characiformes Characidae

Scientific Name: Diapoma terofali
Species Authority: (Géry, 1964)
Common Name(s):
English Tetra
Spanish Mojarra
Glandulocauda terofali Géry, 1964

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Reis, R & Lima, F.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)
This wide ranging species has been assessed as Least Concern because it is locally abundant. Although this species was under major threats in the past, it is unlikely that decline is still taking place.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the lower Paraná and Uruguay River basins, in Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil.
Countries occurrence:
Argentina; Brazil; Uruguay
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Locally abundant species.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: D. terofali is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species. It occurs in medium and small sized rivers and swims in small schools.
Systems: Freshwater
Congregatory: Congregatory (and dispersive)

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It is very likely that D. terofali is threatened by habitat degradation and water pollution. The Uruguay River basin has undergone intense deforestation since the onset of colonization. There is almost no original vegetation left, (there has been a 92.4% loss of original forest cover) and this has greatly affected the ecological balance, causing a desertification process to occur in the area (Diegues 1994). In addition, with there being at least 13 dams, there is a high degree of river fragmentation within the basin (Water Resources eAtlas 2005), and as a result, populations of most migratory fish species are severely diminished in the middle and upper Uruguay river (FAO 1996). However, it is unknown how this habitat alteration would have affected D. terofali.

The Paraná basin is also threatened by degradation in the quality of the basin's water resources, due to the disposal of untreated domestic and industrial effluents (Diegues, 1994), however, this is largely in the upper part of the basin, whereas the lower Paraná basin has a relatively low human population and is still in a rather pristine condition over large parts (Junk 2005).

However, the extent to which the above threats are acting on this species now is likely to have weakened significantly over the last decade and are probably not causing major decline now.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place and research into general biology and ecology (habitat status and population trends) are required.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.2. Industrial & military effluents -> 9.2.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution)..

Diegues, A.C.S. 1994. An Inventory of Brazilian Wetlands. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1999. Catalo of fishes. Updated database version of November 1999..

Food and Agriculture Organisation. 1996. Control of Water Pollution from Agriculture. FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Junk, W.J. 2005. Ecology and Management of Large South American Rivers and their Floodplains. International River Symposium. Brisbane, Australia.

Nion, H., Rios, C. and Meneses, P. 2002. Peces del Uruguay: Lista sistemática y nombres comunes. Montevideo, DINARA, Infopesca.

Water Resources eAtlas. 2005. Watersheds of the World. Available at: (Accessed: 10th November).

Weitzman, S.H. 2003. Glandulocaudinae (Characins, tetras). In: R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds), Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America, pp. 222-230. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Weitzman, S.H. and Fink, S.V. 1985. Xenurobryconin phylogeny and putative pheromone pumps in glandulocaudine fishes (Teleostei: Characidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 421: i-iii + 1-121.

Weitzman, S.H. and Menezes, N.A. 1998. Relationships of the tribes and genera of the Glandulocaudinae (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae) with a description of a new genus, Chrysobrycon. In: L.R. Malabarba, R.E. Reis, R.P. Vari, Z.M.S. Lucena and C.A.S. Lucena (eds), Phylogeny and classification of neotropical fishes., pp. 171-192. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS.

Citation: Reis, R & Lima, F. 2009. Diapoma terofali. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T167669A6365341. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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