Creagrutus paralacus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Characiformes Characidae

Scientific Name: Creagrutus paralacus
Species Authority: Harold & Vari, 1994

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2007-03-01
Assessor(s): Reis, R & Lima, F.
Reviewer(s): Collen, B., Darwall, W., Ram, M. & Smith, K. (SRLI Freshwater Fish Evaluation Workshop)
Assessed as Least Concern because of the lack of threats acting on this species. It does have a restricted range in an area with heavy pollution and habitat degradation. Therefore monitoring of this species should take place.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in southern and southeastern tributaries to Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. These tributaries drain into an area of 20,960 km².
Countries occurrence:
Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species has a stable population trend at present.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: C. paralacus is a benthopelagic (ecological region at the lowest level of water body) species.
Systems: Freshwater

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Due to the small nature of the streams in which the species occurs, it is likely that a good proportion of habitat remains intact enough to support this species. Even considering the extent of disturbance (heavy pollution and habitat degradation) in the Lake Maraciabo basin, the species is likely not to have suffered unduly. Creagrutus species are relatively resilient to habitat modification.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no conservation measures in place and research into the population trends are required.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
9. Pollution -> 9.1. Domestic & urban waste water -> 9.1.3. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: No decline ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.4. Type Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: No decline ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Anon. 2001. Fish collection database of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution)..

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1998. Catalogue of fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

Galvis, G., Mojica, J.I. and Camargo, M. 1997. Peces del Catatumbo..

Harold, A.S. and Vari, R.P. 1994. Systematics of the Trans-Andean species of Creagrutus (Ostariophysi: Characiformers: Characidae). Smithsonian Contributions to Zoology 551: 31.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Lima, F.C.T., Malabarba, L.R., Buckup, P.A., Pezzi da Silva, J.F., Vari, R.P., Harold, A., Benine, R., Oyakawa, O.T., Pavanelli, C.S., Menezes, N.A., Lucena, C.A.S., Malabarba, M.C.S.L., Lucena, Z.M.S., Reis, R.E., Langeani, F., Cassati, L. and Bertaco, V.A. 2003. Genera Incertae Sedis (uncertain placement) in Characidae. In: R.E. Reis, S.O. Kullander and C.J. Ferraris, Jr. (eds), Checklist of the Freshwater Fishes of South and Central America, pp. 106-168. Porto Alegre: EDIPUCRS, Brasil.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

WWF - World Wildlife Fund. 2001. Maracaibo Dry Forests. Available at: (Accessed: 30th November).

Citation: Reis, R & Lima, F. 2009. Creagrutus paralacus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T167647A6362377. . Downloaded on 24 November 2015.
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