|Scientific Name:||Epidendrum montserratense Nir|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B1ab(iii,v) ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Jones, M., Clubbe, C. & Hamilton, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Rankou, H. & Hilton-Taylor, C.|
This orchid is assessed as Critically Endangered based on field observations of decreasing population due to habitat loss and fragmentation caused primarily by development pressures for housing and agriculture. Grazing by feral animals and volcanic activity are also causing population decline, the former primarily in the Silver Hills and the latter primarily south of the Belham Valley.
|Range Description:||Recorded only from the Leeward Is. (Montserrat). Recorded from 5 up to 400 m asl.|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The number of subpopulations (three) is based on the Grid Adjacency method. The population size is not known.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||An epiphytic or lithophytic orchid found predominantly in tropical dry forest and tropical dry/mesic forest transition with occasional occurrences in tropical wet forest. Most frequently recorded growing on Mangifera indica L. (introduced) and Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (native). Also recorded growing on other species of native trees and on abandoned sugar mills.|
|Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:||Yes|
|Use and Trade:||There is limited local harvesting of mature individuals for private garden display. No commercial trade is known.|
|Major Threat(s):||Loss and fragmentation of habitat due to human development and volcanic activity are the main threats. There is also loss of host plants and mature individuals of E. montserratense due to uncontrolled grazing (mostly goats).|
|Conservation Actions:||There are ex situ conservation collections of mature individuals at the Montserrat National Trust Botanic Garden (largely plant rescues from mango trees killed by volcanic activity, this an ongoing source of plants). There are also ex situ conservation collections at the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew's Conservation Biotechnology Unit in Micropropagation. Seed collected in May 2006 is stored in the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew's Millennium Seed Bank. A small proportion of the Centre Hills subpopulation falls within the Centre Hills Forest Reserve. A species action plan is being developed. The species is included on CITES Appendix II.|
Govaerts, R. 2010. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at: http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/home.do.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Jones, M. 2008. Distribution and Conservation of Montserrat's Endemic Flora. Msc Thesis, Imperial College.
Nir, M.A. 2000. Orchidaceae Antillanae. DAG Media, New York.
Young, R.P. (ed.). 2008. A Biodiversity Assessment of the Centre Hills, Montserrat. Durrell Conservation Monograph No. 1. Durrell Wildlife Conservation Trust, Jersey, Channel Islands.
|Citation:||Jones, M., Clubbe, C. & Hamilton, M. 2012. Epidendrum montserratense. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2012: e.T16726356A16726372.Downloaded on 20 September 2017.|
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