|Scientific Name:||Peropteryx kappleri|
|Species Authority:||Peters, 1867|
|Taxonomic Notes:||This species may be confused with others therefore current collections may require reevaluation (Y. Munoz pers. comm.).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Dávalos, L., Molinari, J., Miller, J. & Rodriguez, B.|
|Reviewer/s:||Medellín, R. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Schipper, J. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)|
This species is listed as Least Concern because, although it is widely distributed and unlikely to be declining at a rate which would qualify for including the species in one of the threat categories in the near future.
|Range Description:||This species ranges from southern Veracruz, Mexico across Amazonian South America (Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana) to the Atlantic Forests of Brazil (Eisenberg 1989). It may range to moderate elevations of 850 m in Venezuela (Handley 1976). Absent from large areas of Amazonian Brazil, although this area has not been well sampled (Molinari pers. comm.).|
Native:Belize; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Brazil; Colombia; Costa Rica; Ecuador; El Salvador; French Guiana; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Mexico; Nicaragua; Panama; Peru; Suriname; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Widespread but may be restricted by roosting sites; generally common (Emmons and Feer 1997). However, due to its high flight and feeding strategies, it is difficult to estimate population size using current survey methodologies. More than 200 records from Colombia (Molinari pers comm.). Population much less abundant than P. macrotis (Molinari pers comm.). The species is easily confused with P. macrotis (Aguirre pers. comm.).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It tolerates dry situations and although it prefers evergreen forest, the species does forage considerably in open fields. Roosting colonies are small, ranging from one to seven, and roosts are in caves and boulder crevices. The mating system is based on a monogamous pair, and the male defends his female against intruding males (Bradbury and Vehrencamp 1977). Forages high in open space above the canopy level. Associated with water (streams and rivers). Occurs in open fields outside forests. Associated with tree savannas. Roost in cave entrances in shady rocky areas (Davalos and Molinari pers. comm.).|
|Major Threat(s):||Association with caves but not restricted to them. There are no known threats at present. Need studies to obtain more details (Lim pers. comm.).|
|Conservation Actions:||Conservation of caves and karstic regions, and retention of forests. In Mexico is listed as subject to special protection under NOM - 059 - SEMARNAT - 2001 (Arroyo-Cabrales pers. comm.).|
Bradbury, J. W. and Vehrencamp, S. L. 1976. Social organization and foraging in emballonurid bats I. Field studies. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 1: 337-381.
Eisenberg, J. F. 1989. Mammals of the Neotropics. The Northern Neotropics. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, USA and London, UK.
Emmons, L. H. and Feer, F. 1997. Neotropical Rainforest Mammals: A Field Guide, Second edition. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL, USA.
Handley Jr., C. O. 1976. Mammals of the Smithsonian Venezuelan Project. Brigham Young University Science Bulletin, Biological Series 20: 1-91.
|Citation:||Dávalos, L., Molinari, J., Miller, J. & Rodriguez, B. 2008. Peropteryx kappleri. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 March 2014.|
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