|Scientific Name:||Stenella coeruleoalba (Mediterranean subpopulation)|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A2bcde ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Aguilar, A. & Gaspari, S.|
|Reviewer/s:||Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. & Perrin , W.|
This subpopulation of Striped Dolphin has been, and is currently, subject to a number of threats that, cumulatively, reduced its size and may still be slowing its recovery. An abrupt reduction in population size occurred in 1990–1992 due to a die-off involving many 1,000s of deaths (Bortolotto et al. 1992, Aguilar and Raga 1993). Immediately after this die-off, the mean school size was found to be less than one third of prior levels, which implied a proportional reduction in overall population size (Forcada et al. 1994). In 2001–2003, the density (0.49 dolphin/km²) of Striped Dolphins estimated in the Gulf of Valencia was again close to the maximum reported for this species in the western Mediterranean (Gómez de Segura et al., 2006). No similar information is available from other areas. In a 17-year study of variability in group size, Gaspari et al. (in prep.) have found a gradual increase over time in the Ligurian Sea.
The primary cause of the die-off was a morbillivirus infection (Domingo et al. 1990). PCBs and other organochlorine pollutants with potential for immunosuppressive effects were suggested to have enhanced its lethality (Aguilar and Borrell 1994). In 2006–2007 another morbillivirus outbreak affected the species off the coasts of Spain (Fernández et al. 2008, Raga et al. 2008) and later extended to France and the Italian Ligurian Sea (Garibaldi et al. 2008). The mortality associated with that event seemed more moderate (though at least 200 carcasses were reported in Spain), probably because part of the adult population still preserved antibodies against morbillivirus (Van Bressem et al. 2001, Raga et al. 2008). The reduction of the organochlorine load in the population resulting from a general decline in pollutant levels in the Mediterranean (Aguilar and Borrell 2005) may also have implied a reduction in mortality (Castrillon et al. in press).
Besides their immunosuppressive action, PCBs and other organochlorines impair reproduction through a variety of mechanisms. Past and current levels much exceed thresholds from which reproductive effects have been observed in Bottlenose and other dolphins. PCBs may have played a role in the occurrence of luteinized cysts in the ovaries of four of 56 (7.1%) Mediterranean Striped Dolphins (Munson et al. 1998) although there is no evidence that these cysts have impaired reproduction to such an extent that it would affect the overall population.
Incidental capture in fishing gear, particularly in pelagic driftnets, has been high in at least the last two decades, causing thousands of deaths per year (Silvani et al. 1999, Imbert et al. 2001, Tudela et al. 2003). Finally, given the overexploited state of most fishing resources in the Mediterranean, decreased food availability caused by fishing may be an added limitation on the recovery of the Striped Dolphin population, although the significance of such a potential threat has not been assessed.It is suspected that a reduction in population size of >30% occurred over the last three generations (ca. 60 years) (Criterion A2) based on the 2/3 reduction in mean school size in the 1990s (here considered an index of abundance) (A2b), a decline in quality of habitat, particularly food availability (A2c), past and current high levels of exploitation in the form of incidental mortality in fisheries (A2d), and the effects of pathogens and pollutants (A2e).
The causes of the population reduction may be reversible but are neither clearly reversible nor understood; moreover, none of the threats (i.e. potential or likely causes of the decline) has ceased except for pollution by organochlorine pollutants, which has declined in the last two decades (Aguilar and Borrell 2005). Reducing the health threats still caused by PCBs and others pollutants such as brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and perfluorinated compounds may require that these pollutants decrease to a non-effect threshold.
|Range Description:||This species occurs in temperate and subtropical waters of all oceans. It is present throughout the Mediterranean Sea but has not been recorded in the Black Sea.|
Native:Algeria; Croatia; Cyprus; Egypt; France; Gibraltar; Greece; Israel; Italy; Malta; Monaco; Morocco; Spain; Tunisia; Turkey
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Morphological and genetic studies strongly suggest that the Mediterranean and eastern North Atlantic populations are genetically differentiated, with little or no gene flow across the Straits of Gibraltar. Maximum body length of eastern North Atlantic striped dolphins is 5-8 cm longer than that of Mediterranean individuals (Calzada and Aguilar 1995). Skull size is also smaller in Mediterranean specimens than in their neighbouring Atlantic counterparts (Archer 1997). Mitochondrial DNA analysis, from Gibraltar to Greece, yielded 59 haplotypes (n=166), none of which was shared between the two areas, thus supporting strong differentiation; analyses of nuclear DNA support this result (Gaspari et al. 2007, Gaspari et al. in prep).
Genetic analyses of Striped Dolphins from Gibraltar to the coast of Israel, both at nuclear and mitochondrial levels, show that this species is genetically structured within the Mediterranean with low gene flow across the basin. Furthermore, there is evidence for sex-biased dispersal (Gaspari et al. in prep). On a smaller geographic level, Gaspari (2004) found evidence of genetic differentiation between inshore and offshore populations in the Ligurian Sea. Moreover, inside the Mediterranean there is some clinal variation in body size suggestive of population structure and/or restriction in gene flow between areas (Calzada and Aguilar 1995). This appears to be confirmed by significant differences in tissue pollutant levels between Spain and Italy (Monaci et al. 1998).
Range and population
Although overall the Striped Dolphin is the most abundant cetacean in the Mediterranean, both in the eastern and the western basins, it is not found at uniform densities. It typically shows a preference for highly productive, open waters beyond the continental shelf (Notarbartolo di Sciara et al. 1993, Forcada et al. 1994, Frantzis et al. 2003, Gannier 2005). A small number of Striped Dolphins may be resident in the eastern portion of the Gulf of Corinth (Greece) (Frantzis and Herzing 2002). Two strandings were recorded in the Marmara Sea in 1990s (Öztürk et al. 1999).
Reliable abundance estimates are only available for the western basin and most of them refer to the period immediately or soon after the 1990–1992 die-off. There is no available estimate for the eastern Mediterranean Sea:
the population declined in the early 1990s. Current population trend is unknown, although the population may have recovered to pre-1990 levels, at least in some areas (Gómez de Segura et al. 2006).
|Habitat and Ecology:||
The Striped Dolphin is an oceanic species. It shows a preference for highly productive, open waters beyond the continental shelf. It is particularly abundant in the Ligurian Sea, the Gulf of Lions, the waters between the Balearic Islands and the Iberian Peninsula, and the Alborán Sea. In the Ligurian Sea, this species showed no preference for any specific physiographic features, but was almost homogeneously distributed (Azzellino et al. 2008).
Life History Parameters
Age at maturity:
Females: 12 years (western Mediterranean population) (Calzada et al. 1996)
Males: 11.3 years (western Mediterranean population) (Calzada 1996)
Females: 32 years (Di Mèglio and Romero-Álvarez 1996, Calzada et al. 1997)
Males: 28 years (Di Mèglio and Romero-Álvarez 1996, Calzada et al. 1997)
Percentage of living population that is reproductively mature:
Average age of parents in the population:
Females: 22 years (Calzada et al. 1996, Calzada et al. 1997)
Males: 20 years (Calzada et al. 1996)
Slightly over 12 months (Aguilar 1991)
Average interbirth interval:
2.7 years (in Japan) (Kasuya 1985)
Maximum potential annual rate of population increase:
0.09 (Schmitz and Lavigne 1984)
In 1990–1992 a die-off devastated much of, if not the entire, Mediterranean population; 1,000 carcasses were examined in Spain, Italy and France alone, but the toll was undoubtedly much higher because these countries represent only a fraction of the Mediterranean coastline known to have been affected by the process (Bortolotto et al. 1992, Aguilar and Raga 1993). Immediately after the event, the mean school size was found to be less than one third of original levels, which may be taken as an indication, but not as a proof, for a proportional reduction in overall population size (Forcada et al. 1994). The primary cause of the die-off was a morbillivirus infection (Domingo et al. 1990, Van Bressem et al. 1993). The epidemic started in regions containing unusually large numbers of inbred dolphins that were possibly more susceptible to diseases (Valsecchi et al. 2004). PCBs and other organochlorine pollutants with potential for causing immunosuppressive effects were suggested to have enhanced its lethality because the individuals that succumbed to the disease were those carrying the highest PCB tissue concentrations (Aguilar and Borrell 1994).
A second outbreak occurred in 2006–2007 affecting the coasts of Spain (Fernández et al. 2008, Raga et al. 2008), France and the Italian Ligurian Sea (Garibaldi et al. 2008). The mortality associated with that event was moderate, with only about 200 carcasses reported, probably because older dolphins were still protected by the immunity developed during the 1990–1992 epidemic (Raga et al. 2008). Moreover, differently to the previous outbreak, PCB levels in the individuals that succumbed to this event were not significantly different from those in the surviving population, which suggests that pollutants were of no relevance to the 2006–2007 event (Castrillon et al. in press). Recurrent epidemics may have profound cumulative effects on the population dynamics of Mediterranean Striped Dolphins (Van Bressem et al. 2009a).
Poxviruses with the potential to cause mortality of neonates and young calves are also circulating in this population (Van Bressem et al. 2009b). Marine brucellae also infect Mediterranean Striped Dolphins (Van Bressem et al. 2001). These bacteria may limit recruitment by compromising the normal functioning of male and female reproductive systems, inducing abortions and killing neonates and sexually mature individuals (Van Bressem et al. 2009a). Finally, infection by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii seems to be common in Mediterranean striped dolphins (Domingo et al. 1992, Cabezon et al. 2004) and has been suggested as another factor contributing to the death toll during morbillivirus epidemics.
Tissue levels of organochlorine compounds, some heavy metals, selenium and possibly other pollutants such as the brominated flame retardants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and perfluorinated compounds are high and often exceed threshold levels above which detrimental effects commonly appear in mammals (Aguilar 2000, Marsili et al. 2001, Kannan et al. 2002, Pettersson et al. 2004). Blubber concentrations of DDT and PCB, the two main organochlorine pollutants, show a slowly declining trend in the last two decades (Aguilar and Borrell 2005) but are currently still high. Besides the alleged immunodepressive effect (see above), high PCB levels may have been implicated in the development of unusual luteinized cysts in the ovaries of four of 56 (7.1%) Mediterranean Striped Dolphins (Munson et al. 1988), although other factors like the morbillivirus infection, stress and food depletion could have contributed to the abnormal surge or release of luteinizing hormone.
The diet of Striped Dolphins includes commercial fish and cephalopod species (Pulcini et al. 1992, Blanco et al. 1995), so the widespread depletion of fishery resources in the Mediterranean has the potential to affect Striped Dolphin numbers.Global warming may have significant direct and indirect effects on cetacean populations in the Mediterranean (Gambaiani et al. 2009). Climate variability and change affect biomass in a number of ways, including shifts in species distribution. Azzellino et al. (2008b) showed a direct effect of sea surface temperature on striped dolphin distribution in the Ligurian Sea.
No specific measures have been taken for the conservation of Striped Dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea, although this species benefits from the generic protection laws existing in many range states for cetaceans.
One area where the species is more abundant is protected (in principle at least) under the Marine Sanctuary for Cetaceans in the Corso-Ligurian Basin, declared by the Governments of Italy, France and Monaco. Apart from this, because the Striped Dolphin is an oceanic species, most currently existing protected areas are of no use for its conservation. Development of offshore protected areas through international agreements similar to the case in the Ligurian sea should be encouraged. In Spain there was a governmental initiative to identify areas of special interest for the conservation of cetaceans, but the recommendations put forward have not materialized. Effective protection of these areas should be enforced and similar initiatives should be undertaken in other Mediterranean countries.
Pelagic driftnets have been forbidden in Spain and are limited by UE regulations. However, an Italian fleet of significant size (ca 100 vessels) still fishes with driftnets in an unregulated manner. To this is should be added a large Moroccan fleet and the French thonnaille vessels, all know to be responsible for significant cetacean mortality. Drift nets should be eliminated from the region or, at a minimum, the existing regulations on that gear should be strictly enforced.
Most Mediterranean countries have regulations prohibiting direct takes, but enforcement is sometimes poor. This should be corrected and deliberate killing stopped.
Control of pollution, particularly that by organochlorine compounds, has become more effective in the last two decades and the levels of those pollutants are decreasing. However, existing laws and control should be further enforced and Striped Dolphin populations should be monitored to assess trends and geographical variation of known pollutants in tissue levels.
The population size was estimated in the western Mediterranean immediately after the 1990 die-off. Abundance should be monitored, particularly to assess recovery from the die-off(s).
Occurrence of ovarian cysts should be monitored in the population and their potential impact on reproduction should be investigated.
Diet should be studied through stomach content and isotopic analyses to assess overlap with commercial fisheries.
Stranded dolphins should be examined for viral, bacterial and Toxoplasma gondii infection and for the presence of antibodies against these agents.
Aguilar, A. 1991. Calving and ear1y mortality in the western Mediterranean striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba. Canadian Journal of Zoology 69(5): 1408-1412.
Aguilar, A. 2000. Population biology, conservation threats and status of Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 2: 17-26.
Aguilar, A. and Borrell, A. 1994. Abnormally high polychlorinated biphenyl levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) affected by the 1990-1992 Mediterranean epizootic. Science of the Total Environment 154(2-3): 237-247.
Aguilar, A. and Borrell, A. 2005. DDT and PCB reduction in the western Mediterranean from 1987 to 2002 as shown by levels in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Marine Environmental Research 59: 391-404.
Aguilar, A. and J. A. Raga. 1993. The striped dolphin epizootic in the Mediterranean Sea. Ambio 22: 524-528.
Aguilar, A. and Raga, J. A. 1993. The striped dolphin Epizootic in the Mediterranean Sea. Ambio 22(8): 524-528.
Archer, F. I. 1997. Osteological variation in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). International Whaling Commission Scientific Committee SC/49/SM28: 30.
Azzellino, A, Gaspari, S., Airoldi, S. and Nani, B. 2008. Habitat use and preferences of cetaceans along the continental slope and the adjacent pelagic waters in the western Ligurian Sea. Deep-Sea Research Part I 55: 296-323.
Azzellino, A., Gaspari, S., Airoldi, S. & Lanfredi, C. 2008. Biological consequences of global warming: does sea surface temperature affect cetacean distribution in the western Ligurian Sea? Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom doi: 10.1017/S002531540800088X.
Blanco, C., Aznar, J. and Raga, J. A. 1995. Cephalopods in the diet of Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833) from the western Mediterranean during an epizootic in 1990. Journal of Zoology (London) 237: 151-158.
Bortolotto, A., Casini, L. and Stanzani, L. A. 1992. Dolphin mortality along the Southern Italian coast (June-September 1991). Aquatic Mammals 18(2): 56-60.
Cabezón O, Resendes AR, Domingo M, Raga JA, Agustí C, Alegre F, Mons JL, Dubey JP, Almería S. 2004. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild dolphins from the Spanish Mediterranean coast. J Parasitol 90(3): 643-644.
Calzada, N. 1996. Biología del delfín listado (Stenella coeruleoalba) del Mediterráneo occidental. University of Barcelona.
Calzada, N., Aguilar, A., Lockyer, C. and Grau, E. 1997. Patterns of growth and physical maturity in the western Mediterranean striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba (Cetacea: Odontoceti). Canadian Journal of Zoology 75(632-637).
Calzada, N. and Aguilar, A. 1995. Geographical variation in body size in western Mediterranean striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleolba). Zeitschrift für Säugetierkunde 60: 257-264.
Castrillon, J., Gomez-Cantos, E. Aguilar, A., Borrell, A. In press. PCB and DDT levels do not appear to have enhanced the mortality of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the 2007 Mediterranean epizootic. Chemosphere.
Di Méglio, N. and Romero-Alvarez, R. 1996. Growth comparison in striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba, from the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of France. Aquat. Mamm. 22(1): 11-21.
Di Natale A. 1992. L’impatto delle attività di pesca ai grandi pelagici sui cetacei. Boll. Mus. Ist. Biol. Univ. Genova 56-57:87-112..
Di Natale A., Notarbartolo di Sciara G. 1994. A review of the passive fishing nets and trap fisheries in the Mediterranean Sea and of the cetacean bycatch. Rep. int. Whal. Commn (Special Issue) 15:189-202..
Domingo M., Ferrer L., Pumarola M. and Marco A. 1990. Morbillivirus in dolphins. Nature, Lond. 348:21..
Domingo M, Visa J, Pumarola M, Marco A, Ferrer L, Rabanal R, Kennedy S. 1992. Pathologic and immunocytochemical studies of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba). Veterinary Pathology 29: 1-10.
Fernández, A., Esperón, F., Herraéz P., Espinosa de los Monteros, A, Clavel, C., Bernabe, A., Sanchez Vizcaino, J. M., Verborgh, P., DeStephanis, R., Toledano, F. and Bayon, A. 2008. Morbillivirus and pilot whale deaths, Mediterranean Sea. Emerg Infect Dis: 792–794.
Forcada, J., Aguilar, A., Hammond, P.S., Pastor, X. and Aguilar, R. 1994. Distribution and numbers of striped dolphins in the western Mediterranean Sea after the 1990 epizootic outbreak. Marine Mammal Science 10: 137–150.
Forcada, J. and Hammond, P.S. 1998. Geographical variation in abundance of Striped and Common Dolphins of the western Mediterranean. Journal of Sea Research 39: 313-325.
Forcada, J., Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. and Fabbri, F. 1995. Abundance of fin whales and striped dolphins summering in the Corso-Ligurian Basin. Mammalia 59(1): 127-140.
Frantzis, A., Alexiadrou, P., Paximadis, G., Politi, E., Gannier, A. and Corsini-Foka, M. 2003. Current knowledge of the cetacean fauna of the Greek seas. Journal of Cetacean Research and Management 5(3): 219-232.
Frantzis, A. and Herzing, D.L. 2002. Mixed species associations of Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba), Short-beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus delphis) and Risso?s Dolphin (Grampus griseus), in the Gulf of Corinth (Greece, Mediterranean Sea). Aquatic Mammals 28(2): 188-197.
Gambaiani, D.D., Mayol, P., Isaac, S.J., Simmonds, M.P. 2009. Potential impact of climate change and greenhouse gas emission on Mediterranean marine ecosystems and cetaceans. Journal of Marine Biological Association 89(1): 179-201.
Gannier, A. 2005. Summer distribution and relative abundance of delphinids in the Mediterranean Sea. La Terre et la Vie 60: 223-238.
Garibaldi, F., Mignone, W., Caroggio, P., Ballardini, M. and others. 2008. Serological evidence of Morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) found stranded on the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. In: Pierce GJ, Philips E, Lick R. (ed.), 22nd European Cetacean Society Conference. Egmond aan Zee, The Netherlands.
Gaspari S. 2004. Social and population structure of striped and Risso’s dolphins in the Mediterranean Sea. PhD dissertation, University of Durham, UK..
Gaspari, S., Azzellino, A., Airoldi, S. & Hoelzel, A.R. 2007. Social kin associations and genetic structuring of striped dolphin populations (Stenella coeruleoalba) in the Mediterranean Sea. Molecular Ecology 16(14): 2922-2933.
Gaspari, S., Marsili, L., Fossi, C., Ciofi, C., Chelazzi, G. in prep. Identification of conservation units of the striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Mediterranean Sea by population genetic analysis.
Gomez de Segura, A., Crespo, E.A., Pedraza, S.N., Hammond, P.S. and Raga, J.A. 2006. Abundance of small cetaceans in the waters of the Central Spanish Mediterranean. Marine Biology 150: 149-160..
Imbert, G., Gaertner, J. C. and Laubier, L. 2001. Thonaille mediterranenne. Suivi en mer de la campagne 2000. Univ. Aix Marseille II. CNRS Centre dΓÇÖOc├⌐anologie de Marseille.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Kannan K, Corsolini S, Falandysz J, Oehme G, Focardi S, Giesy JP. 2002. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and related fluorinated hydrocarbons in marine mammals, fishes, and birds from coasts of the Baltic and the Mediterranean Seas. Environ Sci Technol 36: 3210-3216.
Kasuya, T. 1985. Effect of exploitation on reproductive parameters of the spotted and striped dolphins off the Pacific coast of Japan. Scientific Reports of the Whales Research Institute 36: 107-138.
Marsili L, Caruso A, Fossi MC, Zanardelli M, Politi E, Focardi S. 2001. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PaHs) in subcutaneous biopsies of Mediterranean cetaceans. Chemosphere 44: 147-154.
Monaci, F., Borrel, A., Leoncio, C., Marsili, L. and Calzada, N. 1998. Trace elements in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) form the western Mediterranean. Environmental Pollution 99: 61-68.
Munson, L, Calzada, N., Kennedy, S. and Sorensen, T.B. 1988. Luteinized ovarian cysts in Mediterranean striped dolphins. J. Wildl. Dis. 34(3): 656-660.
Munson, L., N. Calzada, S. Kennedy and T. B. Sorensen. 1998. Luteinized ovarian cysts in Mediterranean striped dolphins. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 34: 656-660.
Notarbartolo Di Sciara, G., Venturino, M. C., Zanardelli, M., Bearzi, G., Borsani, F. J. and Cavalloni, B. 1993. Cetaceans in the central Mediterranean Sea: distribution and sighting frequencies. Bolletino di Zoologia 60: 131-138.
Öztürk, B., Dede, A., Komut, O. 1999. Cetacean strandings in the Marmara Sea. In: P.G.H. Evans, J. Cruz and J.A. Raga (eds), European research on cetaceans – 13th Annual Conf. Europ. Cetacean Soc.. Valencia, Spain.
Pettersson A, van Bavel B, Engwall M, Jimenez B. 2004. Polybrominated diphenylethers and methoxylated tetrabromodiphenylethers in cetaceans from the Mediterranean Sea. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 47: 542-550.
Pulcini M., Carlini R., Wurtz M. 1992. Stomach contents of striped dolphins, Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1933 [sic]) from the south-central Tyrrhenian coast. European Research on Cetaceans 6: 194-195.
Raga, J. A., Banyard, A., Domingo, M., Corteyn, M., Van Bressem, M. F., Fernández, M., Aznar, F. J. and Barrett, T. 2008. Dolphin morbillivirus epizootic resurges in the Mediterranean. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14(471–473).
Schmitz,O.J.; Lavigne,D.M. 1984. Intrinsic rate of increase, body size, and specific metabolic rate in marine mammals. Oecologia 62: 305-309.
SGFEN. 2001. Incidental catches of small cetaceans. Subgroup on Fishery and Environment (SGFEN), Scientific, Technical and Economic Committee for Fisheries, Commission of the European Communities.
Silvani, L., Gazo, M. and Aguilar, A. 1999. Spanish driftnet fishing and incidental catches in the western Mediterranean. Biological Conservation 90: 79-85.
Tudela, S.; Guglielmi, P.; El Andalossi, M.; Kai Kai A. and Maynou, F. 2003. Biodiversity impact of the Moroccan driftnet fleet operating in the Alborán Sea (SW Mediterranean). WWF Mediterranean Programme, Rome.
Valsecchi E, Amos W, Raga JA, Podestà M, Sherwin W. 2004. The effects of inbreeding on mortality during a morbillivirus outbreak in the Mediterranean striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba). Animal Cons 7(139-146).
Van Bressem M-F, Raga JA, Di Guardo G, Jepson PD, Duignan P, Siebert U, Barrett T, Santos MCO, Moreno IB, Siciliano S, Aguilar A, Van Waerebeek K. 2009a. Emerging infectious diseases in cetaceans worldwide and the role of environmental stressors. Disease of Aquatic Organisms 86: 143–157.
Van Bressem M-F, Van Waerebeek K, Aznar J, Raga JA, Jepson PD, Duignan PJ, Deaville R, Flach L, Viddi F, Baker JR, Di Beneditto AP, Echegaray M, Genov T, Reyes JC, Felix F, Gaspar R, Ramos R, Peddemors V, Sanino GP, Siebert U. 2009. Epidemiological pattern of tattoo skin disease: a general health indicator for cetaceans? Disease of Aquatic Organisms 85: 225-237.
Van Bressem, M.-F., Visser, I.K.G., De Swart, R.L., Örvell, C., Stanzani, L., Androukaki, E., Siakavara K. & Osterhaus, A.D.M.E. 1993. Dolphin morbillivirus infection in different parts of the Mediterranean Sea. Archives of Virology 129(1-4): 235-242.
Van Bressem M, Waerebeek KV, Jepson PD, Raga JA and others. 2001. An insight into the epidemiology of dolphin morbillivirus worldwide. Vet Microbiol 81: 287–304.
|Citation:||Aguilar, A. & Gaspari, S. 2012. Stenella coeruleoalba (Mediterranean subpopulation). In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 16 April 2014.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided|