|Scientific Name:||Cirrhinus cirrhosus|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch, 1795)|
Cirrhina blochii Valenciennes, 1842
Cirrhinus blochii Valenciennes, 1842
Cirrhinus chaudhryi Srivastava, 1968
Cirrhinus cuvierii Jerdon, 1849
Cirrhinus horai Lakshmanan, 1966
Cyprinus cirrhosus Bloch, 1795
Dangila leschenaultii Valenciennes, 1842
Mrigala buchanani Bleeker, 1860
|Taxonomic Notes:||Though Roberts (1997) considered mrigala a synonym of this species, it is observed that both are quite distinct. C. cirrhosus has four barbells whereas mrigala has only two barbells; dorsal branched rays are 15-16 in cirrhosus vs. 12-13 in mrigala.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable D2 ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Rema Devi, K.R. & Ali, A.|
|Reviewer/s:||Dahanukar, N., Raghavan, R. & Molur, S.|
|Contributor/s:||Molur, S. & Bogutskaya, N.|
C. cirrhosus has been assessed as Vulnerable because, even though the species has a wide distribution, it is found in less than five locations (possibly just one as the species is found in one basin within its natural range, the Cauvery River, and the major threat is from introduced Gangetic carps which could range throughout the system).
A large population decline, possibly of more than 80% based on catch data, has been recorded in the past, however this occurred more than three generations ago. More information is needed from current catch data to see if the population is still declining, and if so, at what rate.
|Range Description:||Cirrhinus cirrhosus is presently known in its native range only from the Cauvery River system in India (Menon 2004). Historically the species was wider ranging, being known from the Godavari, Krishna and Cauvery Rivers (Day. F 1978, referenced in Menon 2004). It has been introduced to many countries outside of India.|
Native:India (Tamil Nadu, West Bengal)
Introduced:Bangladesh; Bhutan; Cambodia; Lao People's Democratic Republic; Malaysia; Mauritius; Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Philippines; Sri Lanka; Thailand; Viet Nam
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||A decline in catch data has been observed in the past; in Indian reservoirs, the C. cirrhosus comprised 20-47 % of the catch in 1943 - 1944, but declined to 2% of the catch in 1965 - 1966 due to the introduction of the Gangetic major carps Catla catla and Labeo rohita.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||C. cirrhosus is benthopelagic and potamodromous plankton feeder. It inhabits fast flowing streams and rivers, but can tolerate high levels of salinity. Spawning occurs in marginal areas of the water body with a depth of 50-100 cm over a sand or clay substrate. A 6 kg female can lay a million eggs. Juveniles are omnivorous to about 5 cm total length (TL), adults are almost entirely herbivorous. This fish has a rapid growth rate; by the age of two individuals can reach a length of 60 cm and can weigh as much as 2 kg.|
C. cirrhosus is threatened by introduced Gangetic major carps. In Indian reservoirs, the C. cirrhosus comprised 20-47 % of the catch in 1943 - 1944, but declined to 2% of the catch in 1965 - 1966 due to the introduction of the Gangetic major carps Catla catla and Labeo rohita.
Present threats to C. cirrhosus are loss of habitat, introduced species, overexploitation and pollution.
It has been recommended that caution should be taken when stocking major Gangetic carps (carp species from the Ganges) in the river systems in peninsular India, to avoid the extirpation of the locally commercially important carps, such as C. cirrhosus.
Deep pools in the courses of rivers should be declared as sanctuaries and fishing strictly prohibited within them, to protect the brooders especially when they rest during the period of low discharge in summer months.
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|Citation:||Rema Devi, K.R. & Ali, A. 2011. Cirrhinus cirrhosus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 12 March 2014.|
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