Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Beloniformes Belonidae

Scientific Name: Xenentodon cancila
Species Authority: (Hamilton, 1822)

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-06
Assessor(s): Dey, S.C.
Reviewer(s): Datta, N.C., Jha, B.R. & Allen, D.J.
Contributor(s): Molur, S.

The species populations have declined in some parts of its range (including parts of India and in Nepal) due to siltation and habitat loss and modification. However, Xenentodon cancila is assessed as Least Concern as the scacle of population decline is not thought as yet sufficent to meet the criteria for a threatened category or even the Near Threatened category.                     

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Recorded from Pakistan, India (Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Orissa, and Bihar), Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and Thailand.
Countries occurrence:
Bangladesh; India (Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Orissa, Tripura, Uttaranchal); Myanmar; Nepal; Pakistan; Sri Lanka; Thailand
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:The species is fairly common in the Ganges-Brahmaputra system. In Nepal, it is not common. No information is available for other parts of its range.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Unknown
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Inhabits freshwaters, primarily rivers. In North Bengal it occurs in clear, gravelly, perennial streams and ponds of Terai and Duars .

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This is a surface-living fish which attains a length of 40 cm TL; common size 30 cm. Utilised in commercial fisheries and by subsistence fishers.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There is habitat degradation in some parts of its range in India due to siltation caused by deforestation, and habitat loss and modification due to the loss of wetlands, especially the infilling of ponds.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Information is required on the scale and impact of threats (especially habitat degradation) on the species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:No

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:Not Applicable
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.2. Soil erosion, sedimentation
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Negligible declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 4 
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats

♦  Food - human
 Local : ✓   National : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Citation: Dey, S.C. 2010. Xenentodon cancila. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T166522A6227664. . Downloaded on 09 October 2015.
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