|Scientific Name:||Pomacanthus paru|
|Species Authority:||(Bloch, 1787)|
Chaetodon paru Bloch, 1787
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
While this species is common in the aquarium trade, no significant declines were detected in its numbers except within a few local populations in northeastern Brazil. Listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is found from Florida and the Bahamas to Brazil and straggling north to New York in the Gulf Stream. Has been introduced to Bermuda but not established, however, rare waifs reported from Bermuda. Also reported from St. Helena and Ascenscion Islands in the eastern Atlantic (Burgess 2002). It has been reported as vagrants from West Africa (Allen 1980). Present at depths of 3-100 m.|
Native:Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire); Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – southwest; Atlantic – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Relatively common throughout its range with stable populations.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is common in shallow rocky and coral reefs. It is usually found in pairs, often near sea fans. The species feeds on sponges, algae, bryozoans, zoantharians, gorgonians and tunicates. Spawning pairs are strongly territorial, with usually both members vigorously defending their areas against neighbouring pairs. Juveniles tend cleaning stations where they service a broad range of clients, including jacks, snappers, morays, grunts, surgeonfishes and wrasses.|
|Use and Trade:||The young are regularly collected for the aquarium marine fish trade (Burgess 2002). The collection and sale of this fish for the aquarium trade is very common in Brazil. It is both sold locally and exported - mainly to the US and Europe. During a five year period (1995-2000), 22,969 individuals were exported from Brazil. Animals have been reared in captivity. It is locally harvested as a food fish.|
The only threat is collection for the aquarium trade, however, present harvest levels do not seem to be impacting the global population.
This species is present within many marine protected areas. A maximum export quota of 5,000 specimens from Brazil has been established for this species, which exceeds the current collection levels.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Burgess, W.E. 2002. Pomacanthidae. Angelfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter (ed.), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals., pp. p. 1673-1683.. Rome.
Carpenter, K.E. 2002. The living marine resource of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3 Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. FAO, Rome.
Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
|Citation:||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Pomacanthus paru. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 October 2014.|
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