Holacanthus ciliaris 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae

Scientific Name: Holacanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Queen Angelfish, Angelfish, Blue Angelfish, Golden Angelfish, Queen Angel, Yellow Angelfish
French Demoiselle royale
Spanish Ángel reina, Cachama de piedra, Guinea, Isabelita, Isabelita patale, Isabelita reina
Angelichthys iodocus (Jordan & Rutter, 1897)
Chaetodon ciliaris Linnaeus, 1758
Chaetodon parrae Bloch & Schneider, 1801
Chaetodon squamulosus Shaw, 1796
Holacanthus cornutus Desmarest, 1823
Holacanthus coronatus Desmarest, 1823
Holacanthus formosus Castelnau, 1855
Holacanthus iodocus Jordan & Rutter, 1897
Holacanthus lunatus Blosser, 1909
Holocanthus ciliaris (Linnaeus, 1758)
Taxonomic Notes: The entire population in Bermuda may consist of hybrids between this species and Holacanthus bermudensis (L. Rocha pers. comm. 2009).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.
Even though this species is harvested in high numbers in Brazil, it is not harvested much in other parts of its range (including the Caribbean), and population numbers are apparently stable globally. It is listed as Least Concern.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is known in the Western Atlantic, from Florida (USA) and Gulf of Mexico to Brazil, the Caribbean including Antilles and south American coast, and in the Eastern Central Atlantic at St. Paul's Rocks (Brazil). It occurs at 1-70 m in depth.
Countries occurrence:
Anguilla; Antigua and Barbuda; Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (Saba, Sint Eustatius); Brazil; Cayman Islands; Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Curaçao; Dominica; Dominican Republic; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; Jamaica; Martinique; Mexico; Montserrat; Nicaragua; Panama; Puerto Rico; Saint Kitts and Nevis; Saint Lucia; Saint Martin (French part); Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Sint Maarten (Dutch part); Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Turks and Caicos Islands; United States; Uruguay; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of; Virgin Islands, British; Virgin Islands, U.S.
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):70
Upper depth limit (metres):1
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:It is common around shallow reefs in the Caribbean and Brazil.
Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Found on coral and rocky reefs. Generally occurs solitarily or in pairs. Stomach contents of 26 specimens indicate that the species feeds almost exclusively on sponges supplemented by small amounts of algae, tunicates, hydroids and bryozoans. The young pick ectoparasites from other fishes.

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Not an important foodfish (but it is eaten). Mostly sought after as an aquarium fish, especially when young (Burgess 2002). This is the marine aquarium fish most frequently exported from Brazil. During a five year period (1995-2000), 43,730 individuals were exported from or commercialized in Brazil (Monteiro-Neto et al. 2003). The population at St. Paul's Rocks is genetically indistinguishable from normal H. ciliaris, but has unique and inconsistent colour patterns, which makes it very valuable to the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

Collection by the aquarium trade is a local threat to some populations, however, there are no apparent major threats to the global population. The population at St. Paul's Rocks is potentially susceptible to overcollection. However, St. Paul's Rocks is a very isolated island, only accessible by boat, and is located 1,000 miles from the Brazilian coast. Thus, collection of specimens from this island is very expensive.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in numerous protected areas. A maximum quota of 10,000 specimens for export from Brazil has been established for this species, which exceeds the current collection levels.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.4. Lagoon
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Minority (<50%) ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 

♦  Food - human
 National : ✓ 

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.

Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.

Carpenter, K.E. 2002. The living marine resource of the Western Central Atlantic. Volume 3 Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals. FAO, Rome.

Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Monteiro-Neto, C., Cunha, F.E.A., Nottingham, M.C., Araújo, M.E., Rosa, I.L. and Barros, G.M.L. 2003. Analysis of the marine ornamental fish trade at Ceará State, northeast Brazil. Biodiversity and Conservation 12: 1287-1295.

Citation: Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Holacanthus ciliaris. In: . The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T165883A6156566. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided