Centropyge aurantonotus 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Pomacanthidae

Scientific Name: Centropyge aurantonotus
Species Authority: Burgess, 1974
Common Name(s):
English Flameback Angelfish, Flameback Pygmy Angelfish
Centropyge aurantanota Burgess, 1974

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-10-08
Assessor(s): Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.
Reviewer(s): Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.
Even though this species is heavily collected in southeastern Brazil and may be locally threatened, it has a relatively wide distribution globally and is not harvested in most of its range. It is listed as Least Concern, but more data on population status and harvest levels are necessary.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species is found in the Lesser Antilles, Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles), Venezuela on the northern coast of South America and southern Brazil (Burgess 2002, L. Rocha pers. comm. 2009). The type specimen was collected in about 15 to 20m deep in a patch of staghorn coral, but specimens have been taken in traps off Saint Lucia in excess of 300 m (Burgess 2002).
Countries occurrence:
Aruba; Bahamas; Barbados; Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Brazil; Curaçao; Dominica; French Guiana; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guyana; Saint Lucia; Saint Vincent and the Grenadines; Suriname; Trinidad and Tobago; Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Atlantic – western central; Atlantic – southwest
Lower depth limit (metres): 300
Upper depth limit (metres): 15
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: Common among isolated patches of staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis in the southern Caribbean. In Brazil, it is abundant and stable over rubble bottoms of the state of Espirito Santo and Bahia, and common in deep reefs in the northeastern coast. There are accounts of up to 75% localized declines in abundances in the Brazilian states of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo as a result of harvesting for the aquarium trade (C.E.L. Ferreira pers. comm. 2009).
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species is associated with reef and rubble rock areas. It appears to be territorial, always maintaining a certain distance from their neighbors. Feeds mainly on algae and sponges.
Systems: Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species regularly appears in the aquarium trade. During the period between 1995 and 2000, 5,741 individuals were sold in the Brazilian aquarium trade (Monteiro-Neto et al. 2003).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The main threat to this species is extraction for the aquarium trade, especially in Brazil, where it is sold both locally and exported to the US and Europe. While there is evidence of localized declines due to commercial collection, harvest levels are not considered to be impacting the global population.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is present in some protected areas, for example the Abrolhos Marine National Park, Brazil. A maximum quota of 5,000 specimens for export from Brazil has been established for this species, which exceeds the current collection levels. It will be included in the Sao Paulo State Red List (A. Carvalho-Filho pers. comm. 2009), which will regulate trade.

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.1. Outer Reef Channel
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.2. Back Slope
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
9. Marine Neritic -> 9.8. Marine Neritic - Coral Reef -> 9.8.3. Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale)
♦ timing: Ongoing ♦ scope: Minority (<50%) ♦ severity: Slow, Significant Declines ⇒ Impact score: Low Impact: 5 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R. 1980. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. Wiley, New York.

Burgess, W.E. 2002. Pomacanthidae. Angelfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter (ed.), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Atlantic. Vol. 3: Bony fishes part 2 (Opistognathidae to Molidae), sea turtles and marine mammals., pp. p. 1673-1683.. Rome.

Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Citation: Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Centropyge aurantonotus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2010: e.T165865A6152213. . Downloaded on 28 November 2015.
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