|Scientific Name:||Percina aurolineata|
|Species Authority:||Suttkus & Ramsey, 1967|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1|
|Reviewer(s):||Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.|
|Facilitator/Compiler(s):||Hammerson, G.A. & Ormes, M.|
This species is listed as Vulnerable because its extent of occurrence is probably less than 5000 sq km, area of occupancy is less than 500 sq km, number of locations probably does not exceed 10, and habitat is subject to ongoing degradation. Population size is unknown but may not exceed 10,000. Distribution and abundance may be declining, but the rate of decline is unknown.
|Range Description:||Range includes the Coosawattee River (Coosa River system), Georgia, and Cahaba River system (Cahaba River, Little Cahaba River, and Schultz Creek; Mobile Bay drainage), Alabama (Boschung and Mayden 2004, Page and Burr 2011).
Formerly this species occurred in 79 km of the Cahaba River, almost 11 km of the Little Cahaba River, and in Coosawattee River system; it survives in fragmented populations in the Coosawattee River, in about 11 km of the Little Cahaba River, and in 43 km of the Cahaba River (End. Sp. Tech. Bull. 16:7-8). It is rare and localized. Recent records are from the Cahaba River main channel between Piper Bridge (County Hwy 24) and Centreville and the lower reach of Little Cahaba River below Bulldog Bend (County Hwy 65), Bibb County (Pierson pers. comm. 1997).
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Number of occurrences has not been determined using standardized criteria. Possibly there are 8–10 occurrences in the main channels of Cahaba and Little Cahaba rivers, plus additional occurrences in the Coosawattee River.
Total adult population size is unknown but may not exceed 10,000.
In Alabama, this species occupies only about half of its historical range (Boschung and Mayden 2004).
This species is believed to be declining throughout its range (Pierson pers. comm. 1997).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Habitat includes fast rocky runs of small to medium rivers (Page and Burr 2011); main channels in areas of white-water rapids to three or more feet deep, and substrates of bedrock, boulders, rubble and gravel. Podostemum and Justicia characteristically are present (Lee et al. 1980).|
|Use and Trade:||This species is not utilized.|
Decline has been due to water pollution and siltation from sewage treatment plants, limestone quarrying, and strip-mining, and from the construction of reservoirs for hydropower, navigation, and flood control (End. Sp. Tech. Bull. 16:8). Current threats include siltation and excessive nutrient inputs from residential development and poultry farms (J. M. Pierson pers. comm. 1995).
Deforestation and agriculture have increased erosion by several orders of magnitude, and this fish is intolerant of an extraordinarily large amount of silt. Siltation also derives from strip mining, highway construction, and urban development. Habitat is also degraded by municipal sewage effluents and industrial pollutants. Impoundments also eliminated and degraded habitat. Source: Boschung and Mayden (2004).
|Conservation Actions:||Surveys are needed in lower Sixmile Creek and lower Schultz Creek. Continued monitoring approximately every 5 years is needed. Watershed protection and education of landowners throughout the range is needed.|
Boschung, H.T. and Mayden, R.L. 2004. Fishes of Alabama. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 12 June 2013).
Kuehne, R.A. and Barbour, R.W. 1983. The American Darters. University Press of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky.
Lee, D.S., Gilbert, C.R., Hocutt, C.H., Jenkins, R.E., McAllister, D.E. and Stauffer, J.R., Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American freshwater fishes. North Carolina State Museum of Natural History, Raleigh, North Carolina.
Nelson, J.S., Crossman, E.J., Espinosa-Perez, H., Findley, L.T., Gilbert, C.R., Lea, R.N. and Williams, J.D. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.
Page, L.M. 1983. Handbook of Darters. T. F. H. Publications, Inc., Neptune City, New Jersey.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes: North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
Page, L.M. and Burr, B.M. 2011. Peterson field guide to freshwater fishes of North America north of Mexico. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, Boston, Massachusetts.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society.
Suttkus, R.D. and Ramsey, J.S. 1967. Percina aurolineata, a new percid fish from the Alabama River system and a discussion of ecology, distribution, and hybridization of darters of the subgenus Hadropterus. Tulane Studies in Zoology 13: 129-145.
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1992. Threatened status for two fish, the goldline darter Percina aurolineata and blue shiner Cyprinella caerulea. Federal Register 57(78): 14786-14790.
|Citation:||NatureServe 2013. Percina aurolineata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 21 August 2014.|
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