|Scientific Name:||Apolemichthys trimaculatus|
|Species Authority:||(Cuvier, 1831)|
Holacanthus trimaculatus Cuvier, 1831
|Taxonomic Notes:||Apolemichthys armitagei Smith, 1955, is a hybrid between A. trimaculatus and A. xanthurus (Pyle and Randall 1994).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T.|
|Reviewer/s:||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, presumed large population and no apparent major threats.
|Range Description:||This species is very widely distributed throughout the Indian Ocean and the tropical western Pacific Ocean (Pyle 2001). It has been recorded from Mozambique and Tanzania in the west, to Samoa in the east, and from southern Japan in the north of its range to New Caledonia and northern Australia in the south. It is found at depths of 10 to 80 m.|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; British Indian Ocean Territory; Christmas Island; Comoros; Fiji; Guam; India; Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar (Coco Is.); New Caledonia; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Seychelles; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
It is generally common with stable populations.
|Habitat and Ecology:||Inhabits outer coral reef slopes and drop-offs at depths of 10 to 80 m, where it occurs as solitary animals in pairs, or in small loose groups (Pyle 2001). It is most likely encountered on outer reef drop-offs due to its preference for steep slopes (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Juveniles secretive and occur below 25 m (Myers 1991). This species feeds on sponges and tunicates (Pyle 2001).|
There appear to be no major threats to this species. Collection is limited and is not considered to be impacting the global population.
There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. It occurs in some marine protected areas.
Allen, G.R. and Stone, G.S. 2005. Rapid Assessment Survey of Tsunami-affected Reefs of Thailand. In: G.R. Allen and G.S. Stone (eds), Final Report to the New England Aquarium. New England Aquarium Global Marine Programs Office, Boston, USA.
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Endoh, K. 2007. Angelfishes of the World. Two Little Fishies, Inc., Miami Gardens, Florida.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers.
Myers, R.F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.
Pyle, R. 2001. Pomacanthidae: Angelfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), pp. 3266-3286. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Pyle, R.L. and Randall, J.E. 1994. A review of hybridization in marine angelfishes. Environmental Biology of Fishes 41: 127-145.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. and A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia.
|Citation:||Pyle, R., Myers, R., Rocha, L.A. & Craig, M.T. 2010. Apolemichthys trimaculatus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 23 April 2014.|