|Scientific Name:||Chaetodon citrinellus|
|Species Authority:||Cuvier, 1831|
Chaetodon citrinellus semipunctatus Ahl, 1923
Chaetodon nigripes De Vis, 1884
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Myers, R. & Pratchett, M.|
|Reviewer(s):||Elfes, C., Polidoro, B., Livingstone, S. & Carpenter, K.E.|
While there have been declines documented in some areas, these are not believed to have substantially affected the global population. This species appears to be affected only during the most extreme coral depletion events. In addition, it has a wide distribution, large population and no apparent major threats other than coral loss. It is listed as Least Concern.
|Range Description:||This species is distributed throughout the Indo-Pacific (Pyle 2001, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006) from the East African coast in the west to the Hawaiian Islands (USA), Marquesas Islands and Tuamotu Islands including the Gambier group and Rapa (French Polynesia) in the east. Populations have been recorded as far north as southern Japan and south to New South Wales, Western Australia and Lord Howe Island (all Australia) (Steene 1978, Pyle 2001, G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). Found at depths of 1-36 m. Range size ~71.6 million km2, from values estimated by Jones et al. (2002) based on projection of distribution maps from Allen et al. (1998).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Christmas Island; Cocos (Keeling) Islands; Cook Islands; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Phoenix Is.); Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; Niue; Norfolk Island; Northern Mariana Islands; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Réunion; Samoa; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., US Line Is.); Vanuatu; Wallis and Futuna
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
This species is generally very common, especially in Papua New Guinea and on the Great Barrier Reef (e.g., mean of 1.23 individuals per 200 m2 in the northern
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is occurs on inner reef flats, in lagoons, and on moderately exposed outer reefs. It may be seen in areas with sparse coral growth (Steene 1978). Often occurs in pairs, but may also be seen alone or in small groups (G.R. Allen pers. comm. 2006). This species is a facultative corallivore, feeding on hard corals, as well as algae, polychaetes, and other benthic invertebrates.|
|Use and Trade:||Occasionally exported through the aquarium trade (Pyle 2001).|
|Major Threat(s):||While Chaetodon citrinellus has been shown to decline following very extensive coral depletion in Japan, there are no records of population declines elsewhere (M. Pratchett pers. comm. 2009). There are no other major threats to this species.|
|Conservation Actions:||There appear to be no species-specific conservation measures in place. This species is present within marine protected areas. Monitoring of this species is needed in conjunction with coral monitoring, as well as determining the degree of co-dependence between this species and corals.|
Allen, G.R., Steene, R. and Allen, M. 1998. A guide to angelfishes and butterflyfishes. Odyssey Publishing/Tropical Reef Research.
Burgess, W.E. 1978. Butterflyfishes of the world. A monograph of the Family Chaetodontidae. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Jones, G.P., Caley, M.J. and Munday, P.L. 2002. Rarity in coral reef fish communities. In: P.F. Sale (ed.), Coral reef fishes; Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem, pp. 81-101. Academic Press.
Pratchett, M.S. and Berumen, M.L. 2008. Interspecific variation in ditributions and diets of coral reef butterflyfishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae). Journal of Fish Biology 73: 1730-1747.
Pratchett, M.S., Munday, P.L., Wilson, S.K., Graham, N.A.J., Cinner, J.E., Bellwood, D.R., Jones, G.P., Polunin, N.V.C. and McClanahan, T.R. 2008. Effects of climate-induced coral bleaching on coral reef fishes - Ecological and economic consequences. Oceanography and Marine Biology: An Annual Review 46: 251-296.
Pratchett, M.S., Wilson, S.K. and Baird, A.H. 2006. Declines in the abundance of Chaetodon butterflyfishes following extensive coral depletion. Journal of Fish Biology 69: 1269-1280.
Pyle, R. 2001. Chaetodontidae. Butterflyfishes. In: K.E. Carpenter and V.H. Niem (eds), FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae), pp. 3224-3265. FAO, Rome.
Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.
Shibuno, T., Hashimoto, K., Abe, O. and Takada, Y. 1999. Short-term changes in structure of a fish community following coral bleaching at Ishigaki Island, Japan. Galaxea 1: 51-58.
Steene, R.C. 1978. Butterfly and angelfishes of the world. A.H. and A.W. Reed Pty Ltd., Australia.
|Citation:||Myers, R. & Pratchett, M. 2010. Chaetodon citrinellus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 25 July 2014.|
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