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Pentalagus furnessi 

Scope: Global
Language: English
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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Lagomorpha Leporidae

Scientific Name: Pentalagus furnessi
Species Authority: (Stone, 1900)
Common Name(s):
English Amami Rabbit, Ryukyu Rabbit
Taxonomic Source(s): Hoffmann, R.S. and Smith, A.T. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 185-211. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Taxonomic Notes: There are no recognized subspecies of Pentalagus furnessi (Hoffmann and Smith 2005).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v)+2ab(ii,iii,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-07-21
Assessor(s): Yamada, F. and Smith, A.T.
Reviewer(s): Battistoni, A.
Contributor(s): Sugimura, K.
Justification:
Pentalagus furnessi has a small area of occupancy (334 km²) (Sugimura et al. 2000, Sugimura and Yamada 2004), and is located in four fragmented subpopulations (Yamada 2004) with two locations (Amami and Tokuno islands) that are experiencing a continuing decline in area of occupancy, area and quality of habitat, and number of mature individuals (Sugimura et al. 2000, Sugimura and Yamada 2004). The decline is attributed to invasive predators (Yamada and Cervantes 2005) and habitat loss caused by forest clearing (Sugimura et al. 2000) and resort construction (McDowell 1996). In the past 10 years its area of occupancy (AOO) has increased as invasive mongooses were controlled, but this is now declining to about the former AOO due to predation by feral cats.

Currently (2016), there are an estimated 5,000 individuals on Amami island, the larger population, and 400 on Tokuno island, based on fecal pellet counts (Sugimura and Yamada 2004).
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Pentalagus furnessi occurs only on the Japanese islands of Amami-Oshima (712 km² total land area) and Tokuno-Shima (248 km²), in Kagoshima prefecture, in the Nansei archipelago (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). The rabbit is estimated to have a distribution on Amami Island of 301.4 km² (Yamada and Cervantes 2005), and 33 km² on Tokuno, based on data collected using fecal pellet presence and suitable habitat (Sugimura et al. 2000). The area of both islands combined is 960 km², but less than half of the area constitutes suitable habitat (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). The rabbit’s distribution is fragmented into four separate populations, three of which are very small. (Yamada 2004). The elevational distribution is from sea level to 694 m on Amami and 645 m on Tokuna (Yamada and Cervantes 2005).

Range size declined on Amami Island by 20-40% from 1977-1994 (Yamada 2008).
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Japan
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:334Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:1607
Number of Locations:4
Upper elevation limit (metres):694
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Total population size for Amami island, from estimates in 2003, was between 2,000 and 4,800 individuals, reduced from a 1993-1994 estimate of 2,500-6,100 individuals; a 2016 estimate is ca. 5,000. These estimates were based on fecal pellet counts (Sugimura and Yamada 2004). Tokuno, which has a much smaller area of occupancy, has three populations numbering 200, 100, and 100.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Pentalagus furnessi originally lived in dense primary forest, prior to widespread deforestation (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). No studies have been conducted to measure the impact of the deforestation that began in the 1950s on P. furnessi abundance, but old forest area was reduced by 70-90% of the area since 1980 by logging (Sugimura et al. 2000). The species currently lives in coastal cycad cover, mountain habitat with oak cover (Yamada and Cervantes 2005), broad leafed evergreen forests and cutover areas where perennial grasses dominate (Sugimura et al. 2000).

Pentalagus furnessi has a diet of 12 species of herbaceous plants and 17 shrub species, consuming mostly acorns and the sprouts and young shoots of plants (Yamada and Cervantes 2005).

The species burrows underground, usually in densely covered forest valleys (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). They are primarily nocturnal (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). The total length of males of this species is 45.1 cm. Females are on average 45.2 cm in length (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). P. furnessi has two breeding seasons each year (March-May and September-December), with a single kitten bred at a time (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). At birth, neonates are 15.0 cm in length (Yamada and Cervantes 2005).
Systems:Terrestrial
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Pentalagus furnessi is threatened by invasive predatory species and human caused habitat destruction.

The introduction of the mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), which probably occurred on Amami Island in 1979, has presented a serious threat to P. furnessi, which evolved in isolation in absence of large active predators (Yamada 2002). Feral cats and dogs on both islands present a similar threat (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). While mongooses have been largely controlled, feral cats now represent a major threat to this species.

Habitat destruction, in the form of logging, has decreased the area of old growth forest to less than 10-30% of the area that existed in 1980 (Sugimura et al. 2000). Forest road construction, for the purpose of logging, encourages predator expansion in forests (Sugimura et al. 2000). Construction of resort facilities (e.g. golf courses) on Amami island have caused concern because the plans required destruction of rabbit habitat (McDowell 1996).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Pentalagus furnessi was declared a natural monument of Japan in 1921, and a special natural monument in 1963. These designations prohibited hunting and capture of the rabbits (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). The Center for Conservation of Amami Wildlife was established in 1999, and P. furnessi was listed under the Japanese Endangered Species Act in 2004 (Yamada and Cervantes 2005).

Control of exotic predators has been addressed by a program started in 2005 by the Ministry of the Environment, which seeks to eradicate the introduced mongoose (Yamada and Cervantes 2005). Control of feral cats and dogs is also needed (Sugimura et al. 2000).

Because of the limited area of P. furnessi’s natural range, habitat preservation is very important (Sugimura et al. 2000). The cessation of forest road construction would discourage the spread of predators into the rabbit’s range and restrict logging of mature forests. These logging practices destroy prime habitat for P. furnessi and fragment local populations (Sugimura et al. 2000). Government subsidies intending to support the local economy have inhibited rabbit conservation, as they have provided financial support for forest road construction (Sugimura 1988) and clearing for farmland (Sugimura et al. 2000). Ninety percent of the mature forest area is privately or locally owned, the remaining 10% is owned by the national government (Sugimura et al. 2000).

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.6. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland
suitability:Suitable  
1. Forest -> 1.9. Forest - Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane
suitability:Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.6. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Moist
suitability:Suitable  
12. Marine Intertidal -> 12.1. Marine Intertidal - Rocky Shoreline
suitability:Marginal  
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection
1. Land/water protection -> 1.2. Resource & habitat protection
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.2. Invasive/problematic species control
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
3. Species management -> 3.2. Species recovery
3. Species management -> 3.3. Species re-introduction -> 3.3.1. Reintroduction
4. Education & awareness -> 4.2. Training
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.1. Small-holder plantations
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.2. Wood & pulp plantations -> 2.2.2. Agro-industry plantations
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

4. Transportation & service corridors -> 4.1. Roads & railroads
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Past, Unlikely to Return    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.2. Species disturbance

7. Natural system modifications -> 7.2. Dams & water management/use -> 7.2.11. Dams (size unknown)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing  ♦ severity:Very Rapid Declines  
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.2. Named species [ Canis familiaris ]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
1. Research -> 1.5. Threats
1. Research -> 1.6. Actions
2. Conservation Planning -> 2.1. Species Action/Recovery Plan
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Fukasawa, K., Hashimoto, T., Tatara, M. and Abe, S. 2013. Reconstruction and prediction of invasive mongoose population dynamics from history of introduction and management: a Bayesian state-space modelling approach. J. Appl. Ecol. 50: 469–478.

Hoffmann, R.S. and Smith, A.T. 2005. Order Lagomorpha. In: D.E. Wilson and D.M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 185-211. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

McDowell, D. 1996. Pentalagus furnessi. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Sugimura, K. 1988. The role of government subsidies in the population declines of some unique wildlife species on Amami Oshima, Japan. Environmental Conservation 15: 49-57.

Sugimura, K. and Yamada, F. 2004. Estimating Population Size of the Amami rabbit Pentalagus furnessi based on Fecal Pellet Counts on Amami Island, Japan. Acta Zoologica Sinica 50: 4.

Sugimura, K., Ishida, K., Abe, S., Nagai, Y., Watari, Y., Tatara, M. ... and Yamada, F. 2014. Monitoring the effects of forest clear-cutting and mongoose Herpestes auropunctatus invasion on wildlife diversity on Amami Island, Japan. Oryx 48: 241-249.

Sugimura, K., Sato, S., Yamada, F., Abe, S., Hirakawa, H. and Handa, Y. 2000. Distribution and abundance of the Amami rabbit Pentalagus furnessi in the Amami and Tojuno islands, Japan. Oryx 34(3): 198-206.

Watari, Y., Nishijima S., Fukasawa, M., Yamada, F., Abe, S. and Miyashita, T. 2013. Evaluating the "recovery level" of endangered species without prior information before alien invasion. Ecology and Evolutiion 3(14): 4711-4721.

Yamada, F. 2002. Impacts and control of introduced small Indian mongoose on Amami island, Japan. In: C. R. Veitch and M. N. Clout (eds), Turning the tide: the eradication of invasive species, pp. 389-392. IUCN SSC Species specialist group, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Yamada, F. 2008. A Review of the Biology and Conservation of the Amami Rabbit (Pentalagus furnessi). Lagomorph Biology: Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation, pp. 369-377. Springer, New York, USA.

Yamada, F. and Cervantes, F. A. 2005. Pentalagus furnessi. Mammalian Species 782: 1-5.

Yamada, F. and Sugimura, K. 2004. Negative impact of invasive small Indian mongoose Herpestes javanicus on native wildlife species and evaluation of its control project in Amami-Ohshima Island and Okiwana Island, Japan. Global Environment 8.

Yamada, F., Takaki, M and Suzuki, H. 2002. Molecular phylogeny of Japanese Leporidae, the Amami rabbit Pentalagus furnessi, the Japanese hare Lepus brachyurus, and the mountain hare Lepus timidus, inferred from mitochondrial DNA sequences. Genes, Genetics and Systematics 77: 107-116.


Citation: Yamada, F. and Smith, A.T. 2016. Pentalagus furnessi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T16559A45180151. . Downloaded on 09 December 2016.
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