|Scientific Name:||Lotus maculatus|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Critically Endangered B2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Mesa Coello, R.|
|Reviewer(s):||Peraza Zurita, M.D. & Bilz, M.|
Lotus maculatus is listed as Critically Endangered due to its highly restricted distribution, being found in one single location, with an area of occupancy (AOO) of 1 km². Negative trends have been identified for the quality of its habitat and its population size, which has been found to be lower than 50 individuals. Predation, grazing and other human-generated impacts on the species and its habitat have led to a critical situation for its conservation.
|Range Description:||Lotus maculatus is endemic to the island of Tenerife, the Canary Islands, Spain (Marrero Gómez and Mesa Coello 2004). It grows between 20 and 30 m asl on the northern part of the island. Its presence was reported in three subpopulations: Punta del Puertito (El Sauzal), Roque de Dentro and Roque de la Playa (Anaga). The latter population has been refound in 2007 (Mesa 2007), after being thought extinct (Bañares et al. 2004, Buord and Lesouëf 2006). Its AOO is 1 km².|
Native:Spain (Canary Is.)
|Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:||1|
|Number of Locations:||1|
|Lower elevation limit (metres):||20|
|Upper elevation limit (metres):||30|
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Its total population size has been reported to present a decreasing trend (Gobierno de Canarias 2004). In 1994, 49 individuals were counted; 10 individuals in 2003 (Marrero Gómez and Mesa Coello 2004) and 16 specimens in 2004. The presence of seedlings and juvenile individuals is very low.
More recently, 35 individuals have been recorded, from which 28 were mature reproductive individuals (Mesa 2007). It seems that fluctuations in population size occur depending on the year.
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It grows in halophile shrublands under direct influence of the sea (Buord and Lesouëf 2006). Common accompanying species are Schizogyne sericea, Salsola divaricata, Limonium pectinatum, Astydamia latifolia, Frankenia ericifolia, Scilla haemorrhoidalis and Crithmum maritimum (Marrero Gómez and Mesa Coello 2004).|
|Use and Trade:||It has been used in gardening because of its ornamental value.|
|Major Threat(s):||Main threats are trampling by fishermen and hikers, works in the area, collection, predation by rabbits and competition with nitrophile species, increased by the accumulation of seagull excrement (Gobierno de Canarias 2004, Marrero Gómez and Mesa Coello 2004). Grazing was the main threat affecting the species in the past, almost leading to its extinction, but it is reported to be eradicated in the only currently known location.|
This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is classed species "En peligro de extinción" in the national catalogue of threatened species and in the catalogue for the Canary Islands. It is listed CR B2ab(iii,v); C2a(i); D in the Spanish Red List 2008 (Moreno 2008).
The only known location occurs within the protected area Paisaje Protegido Costa de Acentejo (Marrero Gómez and Mesa Coello 2004). Seeds are stored in the germplasm bank Banco de Germoplasma del Servicio de Biodiversidad de la Viceconsejería de Medio Ambiente. Ex situ cultivation and micropropagation has been developed as well as population monitoring. Herbivorous species presence in the area is being controlled. Re-introduction works were developed, but were unsuccessful.
Potential predators should be eradicated. Natural populations must be reinforced and transferred to more suitable areas if necessary. Illegal collection must be controlled and habitat restoration measures should be established. A species re-introduction plan should be implemented in Roque de Tierra if the absence of the taxon is completely confirmed.
Buord, S. and Lesouëf, J.Y. 2006. Consolidating knowledge on plant species in need for urgent attention at European level. Museum National d’Histoire Naturelle/European Topic Centre on Biological Diversity and Conservatoire Botanique National de Brest, Paris and Brest.
Gobierno de Canarias. Consejería de Agricultura, Ganadería, Pesca y Medio Ambiente. 2004. Fichas de Evaluación de especies amenazadas de Canarias 2004. Available at: http://www.gobiernodecanarias.org/cmayot/medioambiente/medionatural/biodiversidad/especies/catalogodeespeciesamenazadas/estadoconservacion/fichas_2004.html. (Accessed: December 2010).
IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).
Marrero Gómez, M.C. and Mesa Coello, R. 2004. Lotus maculatus. In: A. Bañares, G. Blanca, J. Güemes, J.C. Moreno and S. Ortiz (eds), Atlas y Libro Rojo de la Flora Vascular Amenazada de España, pp. 398-399. Dirección General de la Conservación de la Naturaleza, Madrid.
Mesa Coello, R. 2007. Lotus maculatus Breitf. Seguimiento de Poblaciones de Especies Amenazadas. GESPLAN. Consejería de Medio Ambiente y Ordenación Territorial. Viceconsejería de Medio Ambiente. Gobierno de Canarias. Documento inédito.
Moreno, J.C. (coord.). 2008. Lista Roja 2008 de la Flora Vascular Española. Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, y Sociedad Española de Biología de la Conservación de Plantas), Madrid.
|Citation:||Marrero Gómez, M.V. & Mesa Coello, R. 2013. Lotus maculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T165214A5991061. . Downloaded on 06 February 2016.|
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