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Arum purpureospathum 

Scope:Global
Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_onStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Arales Araceae

Scientific Name: Arum purpureospathum
Species Authority: P.C.Boyce

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable D1+2 ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2011-03-05
Assessor(s): Turland, N.J. & Boyce, P.
Reviewer(s): de Montmollin, B., Delipetrou, P., Bazos, I. & Bilz, M.
Justification:
Arum purpureospathum is endemic to southwest Crete where it is found at five locations. The total population does not exceed 1,000 individuals in a total area of less than 5 km² but the population is assumed to be stable. However, the species and its habitat are subject to threats such as tourism activities, cultivation (olive groves), urbanisation, herbicide application and collection. It is therefore assessed as Vulnerable.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Arum purpureospathum is endemic to southwest Crete (The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010). It is found at five locations: Agia Roumeli (Samaria Gorge exit), Eligias Gorge exit, a few kilometre east of the Eligias Gorge, and two locations between the villages Agia Roumeli and Loutro.
Countries occurrence:
Native:
Greece (Kriti)
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2: 5-10
Number of Locations: 5
Upper elevation limit (metres): 800
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: The total population does not exceed 1,000 individuals in a total area of less than 5 km². Observations do not indicate any fluctuations in the size of the population and there is no sign of population decline.
Current Population Trend: Stable
Additional data:
Number of mature individuals: 1000
Extreme fluctuations: No Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This plant can be found in many different types of habitats such as Ceratonia siliqua woodland, olive groves, Anagyris foetida shrubland, shady places, among limestone rocks and abandoned buildings, maquis, bare rocky slopes and coastal sandy places.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This is a plant of horticultural value and collection of seeds or bulbs at small or large (commercial) scale is a significant threat. Bulbs of the plant are under sale by various apparently unlicensed Greek and international nurseries.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): All the sites are at areas likely to be disturbed because of intense tourism activities, cultivation (olive groves) or urbanisation. Herbicides are used for olive cultivation and may cause degradation of the population. This plant furthermore suffers from over-collection of seeds or bulbs.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species is listed under Appendix I of the Convention on the Conservation of European Wildlife and Natural Habitats (Bern Convention). It is listed in the national red list of Greece as Vulnerable D1+2.

Classifications [top]

1. Forest -> 1.4. Forest - Temperate
suitability: Suitable  
3. Shrubland -> 3.8. Shrubland - Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation
suitability: Suitable  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  
14. Artificial/Terrestrial -> 14.1. Artificial/Terrestrial - Arable Land
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

6. Human intrusions & disturbance -> 6.1. Recreational activities
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

9. Pollution -> 9.3. Agricultural & forestry effluents -> 9.3.3. Herbicides and pesticides
♦ timing: Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation


♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 Local : ✓   National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 16 June 2011).

Phitos, D., Constantinidis, T. and Kamari, G. (eds). 2009. The Red Data Book of Rare and Threatened Plants of Greece. Volume One (A-D). Hellenic Botanical Society, Patras.

WCSPF. 2010. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Available at: http://www.kew.org/wcsp/.


Citation: Turland, N.J. & Boyce, P. 2013. Arum purpureospathum. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T165199A5989146. . Downloaded on 27 May 2016.
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