Lemna gibba 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Arales Lemnaceae

Scientific Name: Lemna gibba L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Fat Duckweed
French Lenticule Bossue, Lentille Bossue
Lemna cordata Sessé & Moc.
Lenticula gibba (L.) Moench
Lenticula gibbosa Renault
Limna cordata Sesse & Moc.
Limna parodiana Giardelli
Telmatophace gibba (L.) Schleid
Telmatophace gibbosa (Renault) Montand
Taxonomic Notes:

There are no significant taxonomic issues associated with this name. However, there is a degree of confusion over separation of L. gibba from L. minor when the former is not expanded and this may obscure differences in the distribution of the two species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2017
Date Assessed: 2016-06-12
Assessor(s): Kumar, B. & Beentje, H.J.
Reviewer(s): Luke, W.R.Q.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Maiz-Tome, L.
Lemna gibba is assessed as Least Concern as the species is widely distributed, common and faces no threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Lemna gibba is distributed throughout the world in warm and Mediterranean climatic regions and is naturalised in Japan (Cook 1996). It is however absent from polar regions and from parts of the tropics. It is also present in most of Europe, South and South West Asia, Sri Lanka, NE & South Africa and South America. 

In India this species reported as present at Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996), Kerala (Nayar et al 2006) and Tamil Nadu. In the Gulf of Mannar it is occasionally found on the mainland coast (Daniel and Umamaheswari 2001). Anand Kumar (2001) reported that this species is distributed throughout India. 

It appears likely that Lemna gibba occurs throughout the Arabian Peninsula, with records from Saudi Arabia (Landolt 2001, Chaudhary 2001), Yemen (Wood 1997, Landolt 1986, Al Khulaidi in prep.), ARE (Jongbloed 2003) and Oman (Ghazanfar 1992).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, Rio Negro); Australia; Austria; Belgium; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Chad; Colombia; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ecuador; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; India (Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu-Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu); Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Kenya; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tamaulipas); Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Slovenia; South Africa; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Wyoming); Uruguay; Yemen (North Yemen)
Additional data:
Upper elevation limit (metres):4100
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


This species has a stable population and can form large colonies in suitable habitats.

Current Population Trend:Stable
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This herb is free-floating and grows in the stagnant water (Anand Kumar 2001) of ponds, tanks (Lakshminarasimhan 1996), pools, ditches, and rice fields. The species is usually found in mesotropic to eutrophic waters (Cook 1996) and in water rich in nitrates and carbonate (Sharma et al. 2010).
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used indirectly in waste water treatment and is also in production of bio ethanol. It can contain high amounts of carbohydrate, cellulose and hemicellulose compared to other aquatic plants (Sharma et al. 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

No threats have been reported for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known or likely to be needed for this species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

Bibliography [top]

Anand Kumar (ed.). 2001. Lemnaceae. In: Singh, N. P., Khanna, K. K. and Dixit, R. D. (eds), Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Vol 3, Botanical Survey of India.

Cook, C.D.K. 1996. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of India. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Daniel, P. and Umamaheswari, P. 2001. The Flora of Gulf and Mannar, Southern India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Ghazanfar, S.A. 1992. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman and their vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica. National Botanic Gardens (Belgium).

Hepper F.N. 1973. Flora of tropical East Africa: Lemnaceae. Crown Agents, London.

IUCN. 2017. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2017-1. Available at: (Accessed: 27 April 2017).

Jongbloed, M.V.D. 2003. The comprehensive guide to the wild flowers of the United Arab Emirates. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency., Abu Dhabi.

Kumar, A. (ed.). 2001. Lemnaceae. In: N.P. Singh, K.K. Khanna and R.D. Dixit (eds), Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Botanical Survey of India.

Lakshminarasimhan, P. (ed.). 1996. Flora of Maharashtra State Monocotyledons.In: B.D. Sharma, S. Karthikeyan and N.P. Singh (eds), pp. 794. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Landolt, E. 1986. Biosystematic investigation in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae), 2. The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Instituts der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule, Zürich.

Landolt, E. 2001. Lemnaceae. In: T. Santisuk and K. Larsen (eds), Flora of Thailand, pp. 394-399. Bangkok.

Nayar, T.S., Rasiya Beegam, A., Mohanan, N. and Rajkumar, G. 2006. Flowering Plants of Kerala: A Handbook. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram.

Sharma, B.D., Karthikeyan, S. and Singh, N.P. (eds). 1996. Flora of Maharashtra state, Monocotyledones. pp. 794. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Sharma, D., Subramanian, B. and Arunachalam, A. 2010. Bioethanol production from Lemna gibba L. Current Science 98(9): 1162-1163.

Symoens J.J. 1997. Hydrocharitaceae. In: Edwards, Sebsebe & Hedberg (ed.), Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, Addis Ababa.

Wood, J.R.I. 1997. A handbook of the Yemen flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew., London.

Citation: Kumar, B. & Beentje, H.J. 2017. Lemna gibba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T164103A84289063. . Downloaded on 25 April 2018.
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