Lemna gibba 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Arales Lemnaceae

Scientific Name: Lemna gibba
Species Authority: L.
Regional Assessments:
Common Name(s):
English Fat Duckweed
French Lenticule Bossue, Lentille Bossue
Lemna cordata Sessé & Moc.
Lenticula gibba (L.) Moench
Lenticula gibbosa Renault
Limna cordata Sesse & Moc.
Limna parodiana Giardelli
Telmatophace gibba (L.) Schleid
Telmatophace gibbosa (Renault) Montand
Taxonomic Notes:

There are no significant taxonomic issues associated with this name. However, there is a degree of confusion over separation of L. gibba from L. minor when the former is not expanded and this may obscure differences in the distribution of the two species.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2013
Date Assessed: 2010-12-11
Assessor(s): Kumar, B.
Reviewer(s): Lakshminarasimhan, P., Rasingam, L., Gunaga, S., Raghavan, R., Molur, S. & García, N.
Contributor(s): Molur, S., Lansdown, R.V., Knees, S.G. & Patzelt, A.
Lemna gibba is assessed as Least Concern as the species is widely distributed, common and without any threats.
Previously published Red List assessments:
2013 Least Concern (LC)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: Lemna gibba is distributed throughout the world in warm and Mediterranean climatic regions, naturalized in Japan (Cook 1996) and absent in polar regions and the tropics. It is also present in most of Europe, South and South West Asia, Sri Lanka, NE & South Africa and South America. 
In India this species reported from Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Chattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra (Lakshminarasimhan 1996), Kerala (Nayar et al 2006) and Tamil Nadu. In the Gulf of Mannar it is occasionally found on the mainland coast (Daniel and Umamaheswari 2001). But Anand Kumar (2001) reported that this species is distributed throughout India. 
It appears likely that Lemna gibba occurs throughout the Arabian Peninsula, with records from Saudi Arabia (Landolt 2001, Chaudhary 2001), Yemen (Wood 1997, Landolt 1986, Al Khulaidi in prep.), U.A.E. (Jongbloed 2003) and Oman (Ghazanfar 1992).
Countries occurrence:
Albania; Andorra; Argentina (Buenos Aires, Chubut, Rio Negro); Australia; Austria; Belgium; Bolivia, Plurinational States of; Colombia; Croatia; Czech Republic; Denmark; Ecuador; Finland; France; Germany; Gibraltar; Greece; Hungary; India (Chattisgarh, Gujarat, Jammu-Kashmir, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu); Ireland; Israel; Italy; Jordan; Lebanon; Lithuania; Luxembourg; Mexico (Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Michoacán, Oaxaca, Puebla, Sonora, Tamaulipas); Morocco; Netherlands; Norway; Oman; Palestinian Territory, Occupied; Peru; Poland; Portugal; Saudi Arabia; Slovenia; Spain; Sri Lanka; Sweden; Switzerland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tanzania, United Republic of; Uganda; United Arab Emirates; United Kingdom; United States (Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Wyoming); Uruguay; Yemen (North Yemen)
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]


There is no population information on this species.

Current Population Trend: Unknown
Additional data:

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This herb is freely floating and grows in stagnant water (Anand Kumar 2001), ponds and tanks (Lakshminarasimhan 1996).Usually found in mesotropic to eutrophic waters (Cook 1996). It grows in water rich in nitrates and carbonate (Sharma et al. 2010).
Systems: Freshwater
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat: No

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: It is used in directly in waste water treatment and also used for the production of bio ethanol. It contain high amount of carbohydrate, cellulose, hemicellulose compared to other aquatic plants (Sharma et al. 2010).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s):

No threats have been reported for this species.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: No conservation actions are known for this species.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.2. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.4. Wetlands (inland) - Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.6. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Suitable  major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.8. Wetlands (inland) - Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.9. Wetlands (inland) - Freshwater Springs and Oases
suitability: Suitable  
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.14. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.1. Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.2. Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
suitability: Marginal  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.3. Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
suitability: Unknown  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.5. Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.6. Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.7. Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels)
suitability: Suitable  
15. Artificial/Aquatic & Marine -> 15.9. Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over part of range
  Occur in at least one PA:Unknown
  Area based regional management plan:No
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No

♦  Fuels
 Local : ✓ 

♦  Other (free text)
 Local : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Anand Kumar (ed.). 2001. Lemnaceae. In: Singh, N. P., Khanna, K. K. and Dixit, R. D. (eds), Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Vol 3, Botanical Survey of India.

Cook, C.D.K. 1996. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of India. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Daniel, P. and Umamaheswari, P. 2001. The Flora of Gulf and Mannar, Southern India. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Ghazanfar, S.A. 1992. An annotated catalogue of the vascular plants of Oman and their vernacular names. Scripta Botanica Belgica. National Botanic Gardens (Belgium).

IUCN. 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2013.1). Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2013).

Jongbloed, M.V.D. 2003. The comprehensive guide to the wild flowers of the United Arab Emirates. Environmental Research and Wildlife Development Agency., Abu Dhabi.

Kumar, A. (ed.). 2001. Lemnaceae. In: N.P. Singh, K.K. Khanna and R.D. Dixit (eds), Flora of Madhya Pradesh, Botanical Survey of India.

Lakshminarasimhan, P. (ed.). 1996. Flora of Maharashtra State Monocotyledons.In: B.D. Sharma, S. Karthikeyan and N.P. Singh (eds), pp. 794. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Landolt, E. 1986. Biosystematic investigation in the family of duckweeds (Lemnaceae), 2. The family of Lemnaceae - a monographic study. Veröffentlichungen des Geobotanischen Instituts der Eidgenössischen Technischen Hochschule, Zürich.

Landolt, E. 2001. Lemnaceae. In: T. Santisuk and K. Larsen (eds), Flora of Thailand, pp. 394-399. Bangkok.

Nayar, T.S., Rasiya Beegam, A., Mohanan, N. and Rajkumar, G. 2006. Flowering Plants of Kerala: A Handbook. Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram.

Sharma, B.D., Karthikeyan, S. and Singh, N.P. (eds). 1996. Flora of Maharashtra state, Monocotyledones. pp. 794. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.

Sharma, D., Subramanian, B. and Arunachalam, A. 2010. Bioethanol production from Lemna gibba L. Current Science 98(9): 1162-1163.

Wood, J.R.I. 1997. A handbook of the Yemen flora. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew., London.

Citation: Kumar, B. 2013. Lemna gibba. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2013: e.T164103A19313810. . Downloaded on 01 December 2015.
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