|Scientific Name:||Metasepia pfefferi|
|Species Authority:||(Hoyle, 1885)|
Sepia pfefferi Hoyle, 1885
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.|
|Reviewer(s):||Reid, A., Rogers, Alex & Bohm, M.|
|Contributor(s):||Herdson, R. & Duncan, C.|
Metasepia pfefferi has been assessed as Data Deficient since there are no data available on the impact of harvesting for the aquarium trade. Other potential future threats include ocean acidification caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
|Range Description:||The geographic distribution of this species includes northern Australia from Mandurah, western Australia, to Moreton Bay, southern Queensland and the southern coast of New Guinea (Reid et al. 2005).|
Native:Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia); Papua New Guinea (Papua New Guinea (main island group))
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||The population size of this species is unknown.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species is a demersal neritic species found on sand and muddy habitats in shallow waters (Reid et al. 2005). It is typically well camouflaged but when disturbed changes to bright, warning colouration (Reid et al. 2005). It is active by day preying on fish and crustaceans (Reid et al. 2005). The female spawns large white eggs into crevices or under ledges in coral, rock, wood or coconut shells (Norman 2003). This species has direct developing young (Norman 2003).|
|Use and Trade:||This brightly coloured species may be collected for the aquarium fish trade (Reid et al. 2005).|
|Major Threat(s):||Ocean acidification caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is potentially a threat to all cuttlefish. Studies have shown that under high pCO2 concentrations, cuttlefishes actually lay down a denser cuttlebone which is likely to negatively affect buoyancy regulation (Gutowska et al. 2010). This species is characterised by bright colours and patterns and interesting behaviours that may make it a popular in the aquarium trade (Reid et al. 2005).|
|Conservation Actions:||Research is required on the trends in population size, and whether harvesting is having an impact on the population size of this species.|
Gutowska, M.A., Melzner, F., Portner, H.O. and Meier, S. 2010. Cuttlebone calcification increases during exposure to elevated seawater pCO(2) in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Marine Biology 157: 1653-1663.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Norman, M.D. 2003. Cephalopods A World Guide. ConchBooks, Hackenheim, Germany.
Reid, A., Jereb, P. and Roper, C.F.E. 2005. Family Sepiidae. In: P. Jereb and C.F.E Roper (eds), Cephalopods of the World. An Annotated and Illustrated Catalogue of Cephalopod Species Known to Date. Volume 1. Chambered Nautiluses and Sepioids (Nautilidae, Sepiidae, Sepiolidae, Sepiadariidae, Idiosepiidae and Spirulidae), pp. 54-152. FAO, Rome.
|Citation:||Barratt, I. & Allcock, L. 2012. Metasepia pfefferi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 05 March 2015.|
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