Paretroplus maculatus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Cichlidae

Scientific Name: Paretroplus maculatus Kiener & Maugé, 1966
Common Name(s):
English Damba Mipentina

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-05-15
Assessor(s): Sparks, J.S.
Reviewer(s): Raminosoa, N., Randrianizahaisa, H., Rasoloariniaina, R, Ravelomanana, T. & Velosoa, J.
Contributor(s): Loiselle, P.V. & Participants of the CBSG/ANGAP CAMP "Faune de Madagascar" workshop, Mantasoa, Madagascar 2001
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Darwall, W.R.T.
This species was historically known from the Betsiboka and Mahajamba river basins on the western slopes of Madagascar. It has experienced a rapid decline in range and population size in the last decade due to severe fishing pressure, impact of introduced alien species, and widespread habitat destruction. With an estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) of less than 100 km² and an estimated Area of Occupancy (AOO) of less than 10 km², a severely fragmented habitat, disappearance from small lakes formerly inhabited, and a continuing decline in habitat and mature individuals, this species is assessed as Critically Endangered. Surveys in recent years (2011) have failed to find specimens in its former habitats. Prior surveys have shown a decline in the number of mature individuals at Lac Ravelobe within Ankarafantsika National Park, where the species was formerly common. That habitat is now highly degraded and no specimens were found on most recent survey of the lake in 2011. More comprehensive surveys are needed to access current status of species.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:This species is endemic to northwestern Madagascar. This species was historically known from the Betsiboka and Mahajamba river basins on the western slopes of Madagascar. Prior surveys have shown a decline in the number of mature individuals at Lac Ravelobe within the Ampijoroa Forest Station in Ankarafantsika National Park, where the species was formerly common.
Countries occurrence:
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:10Continuing decline in area of occupancy (AOO):Yes
Estimated extent of occurrence (EOO) - km2:100
Continuing decline in extent of occurrence (EOO):Yes
Continuing decline in number of locations:Yes
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Paretroplus maculatus is endemic to turbid, shallow floodplain lakes in the lower reaches of the Betsiboka and Ikopa drainage basins in northwestern Madagascar (Sparks, 2008). The range of P. maculatus extends in the north from Lake Ravelobe and surrounding small rivers in the vicinity of Ampijoroa Forestry Station, located to the southeast of Mahajunga, southward to a number of small lakes in the vicinity of Maevatanana (de Rham and Nourissat, 2002, 2004), including lakes in the region of Ambato-Boeni (Kiener and Mauge´, 1966: ‘‘dans la zone du lac Amparihibe-Sud, Tsaramandroso, and Kamoro’’; de Rham and Nourissat, 2004), which is more or less centrally located between Ampijoroa and Maevatanana. Lake Andimaka, located to the southwest of the town of Mahazoma, which itself is located to the southwest of Maevatanana, is the most southerly collection locality known for P. maculatus (Sparks, 2008).
Recent surveys have failed to find specimens in former habitats and localities.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Continuing decline of mature individuals:Yes
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Paretroplus maculatus is endemic to turbid, shallow floodplain lakes in the lower reaches of the Betsiboka and Ikopa drainage basins in northwestern Madagascar (Sparks, 2008). Also found in small rivers.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes
Movement patterns:Not a Migrant

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Species was heavily fished throughout its range as it is a highly desired food fish.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Based on collections by John Sparks and those of colleagues spanning several years, P. maculatus appears to have suffered a severe decline in abundance in recent years throughout its range. Severe fishing pressure, habitat degradation, and the introduction of a number of exotic species, most notably the Asian snakehead, Channa sp., are probably the largest factors accounting for the rapid attrition of P. maculatus.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: This species was afforded some protection from fishing at Lac Ravelobe within Ankarafantsika National Park, however, that habitat is now highly degraded and no specimens were found on most recent survey of the lake in 2011. Although the species is found within the National Park the regulations are not currently enforced to provide the protection required. The lake is currently covered by Eichhornia crassipes so restoration measures are needed to clear the lake and improve the habitat.

Classifications [top]

5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.1. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls)
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.5. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
5. Wetlands (inland) -> 5.7. Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
suitability:Suitable season:resident major importance:Yes
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
2. Land/water management -> 2.3. Habitat & natural process restoration
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications
5. Law & policy -> 5.4. Compliance and enforcement -> 5.4.2. National level

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.3. Logging & wood harvesting -> 5.3.5. Motivation Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

8. Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases -> 8.1. Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases -> 8.1.1. Unspecified species
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.3. Indirect species effects -> 2.3.2. Competition

1. Research -> 1.2. Population size, distribution & trends
1. Research -> 1.3. Life history & ecology
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

de Rham, P. and Nourissat, J.-C. 2002. Les cichlidés endémiques de Madagascar. Association France Cichlid. Sagrafic, Barcelona, Spain.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

Kiener, A. and Maugé, M. 1966. Contribution à l'étude systématique et écologique des poissons Cichlidae endémiques de Madagascar. Mémoires du Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle. 40(2):51-99.

Loiselle, P.V. and de Rham, P. 2003b. Paretroplus. In: S.M. Goodman and J.P. Benstead (eds) The Natural History of Madagascar, pp. 877-878. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Nourissat, J.-C. 1992. Madagascar 1991. Revue Francaise des Cichlidophiles 118:9-29.

Nourissat, J.-C. 1997. Madagascar 1996. Revue Francaise des Cichlidophiles 174:19-34.

Sparks, J.S. 2008. Phylogeny of the Cichlid Subfamily Etroplinae and Taxonomic Revision of the Malagasy Cichlid Genus Paretroplus (Teleostei: Cichlidae). Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 314: 1-151.

Citation: Sparks, J.S. 2016. Paretroplus maculatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T16236A58297455. . Downloaded on 18 July 2018.
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