|Scientific Name:||Raja polystigma|
|Species Authority:||Regan, 1923|
|Taxonomic Notes:||In some areas of the Mediterranean Sea (particularly along the Italian coasts) this species is probably misidentified with Raja montagui. Further investigation is required into this and morphometric and genetic studies are still in progress (Mancusi et al. 2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Ungaro, N., Serena, F., Dulvy, N., Tinti, F., Bertozzi, M., Mancusi, C. & Notarbartolo di Sciara, G.|
|Reviewer(s):||Cavanagh, R.D., Kyne, P.M. & RL Expert Panel (Shark Red List Authority)|
The Speckled Ray (Raja polystigma) is endemic to the Mediterranean Sea. This relatively small skate (60 cm TL) mainly inhabits soft bottoms on continental shelves at depths of 100-400 m. It has a wide distribution in the Mediterranean (mostly western and western central areas) where it is moderately common. In northern Mediterranean trawl surveys from 1994-1999, the Speckled Ray was captured in 171 out of 6,336 tows. The species is a bycatch in trawl nets, but is also fished with gillnets, longline and handline in artisanal fisheries and marketed along African coasts. Although nothing is known of the impact of fisheries or of temporal population trends, its entire area of occurrence lies within intensively trawled regions. Given this species' endemicity and that large areas of its range have been historically and are presently intensively fished, it is assessed as Near Threatened on the basis of suspected declines (close to meeting the criteria for Vulnerable A4d). Further information is required from the African coasts and possible misidentifications of this species with Spotted Ray (R. montagui) off Italy are currently being investigated.
|Range Description:||Endemic in the Mediterranean Sea (Serena 2005). Moderately common throughout the Mediterranean Sea, particularly in the western (Morocco, Spain and France) and western central areas (Tyrrhenia, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily) (Baino et al. 2001, Ragonese et al. 2003, Florio et al. 2003, Follesa et al. 2003, Spedicato et al. 2003, Serena 2005, Mancusi et al. 2005), rare in Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Notarbartolo di Sciara and Bianchi 1998), common along northern African coasts (Stehmann and Burkel 1984) and eastern Algerian coasts (Bertozzi et al. 2003).|
Native:Algeria; France (Corsica, France (mainland)); Italy (Sardegna, Sicilia); Morocco; Spain (Spain (mainland)); Tunisia
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Mediterranean and Black Sea
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
Raja polystigma is moderately common throughout the Mediterranean Sea, particularly in the western (Morocco, Spain and France) and western central areas (Tyrrhenia, Corsica, Sardinia and Sicily) (Baino et al. 2001 Ragonese et al. 2003, Florio et al. 2003, Follesa et al. 2003, Spedicato et al. 2003, Serena 2005, Mancusi et al. 2005), rare in Adriatic and Ionian Seas (Notarbartolo di Sciara and Bianchi 1998), common along northern African coasts (Stehmann and Burkel 1984) and eastern Algerian coasts (Bertozzi et al. 2003).
It is found predominantly on the shelf and has been captured in the Mediterranean International Trawl Surveys (MEDITS) down to depths of 500 m (Baino et al. 2001). The overall biomass index assessed with MEDITS surveys (0-800m deep) in the west, north and eastern Mediterranean was 1.1 kg/km² (Baino et al. 2001). It was captured in 171 out of 6,336 survey tows between 1994 and 1999 and its estimated standing stock biomass throughout the northern Mediterranean Sea is 568t. Following R. clavata and R. miraletus, R. polystigma is the third most abundant skate species captured in trawl surveys performed in the south Ligurian and north Tyrrhenian Sea from 1985-2004. In this area it occupies a very wide depth range (20-633 m) concentrating between 300 and 400m. Important catches of juveniles were recorded occasionally (Serena et al. 2005). Most of the collected specimens measured between 12 and 49 cm in length (Serena et al. 2005).
|Habitat and Ecology:||Benthic, mainly on soft bottoms from 100-400 m (Serena 2005), but with a wide depth range from 20-633 m. Both males and females are estimated to mature at 40-53 cm TL for (Bini 1967, Notarbartolo di Sciara and Bianchi 1998, Tortonese 1956, N. Ungaro unpublished data) with a maximum recorded size of 60 cm TL (Bauchot 1987, Stehmann and Burkel 1984, Serena 2005); common at sizes of 30-40 cm TL (Bauchot 1987). Like other skates, this species is oviparous. Reproduction is in winter and 20-62 egg cases (depending on size) are laid per year (Bauchot 1987, Stehmann and Burkel 1984, Serena 2005). Egg-cases measure 46 by 35 mm excluding horns (Stehmann and Burkel 1984, Serena, 2005). R. polystigma feeds mainly on crustaceans (L. typicus, Anphipoda and Isopoda), decapods, cephalopods and bony fishes (Vannucci 2005).|
|Use and Trade:||Known to be marketed along African coasts (Bauchot 1987).|
|Major Threat(s):||Caught as bycatch in demersal trawl fisheries but is also fished with gillnets, longline and handline in artisanal fisheries (Bauchot 1987). There is a high level of exploitation over the continental shelf and upper slope, down to a depth of 800 m in the Mediterranean Sea (Massuti and Moranta 2003). Benthic trawl effort has increased both numerically and in technological terms in the shelf and slope area of the Mediterranean over the last 50 years. For example, the Gulf of Lions area was initially exploited by small-scale benthic trawl fisheries comprising 27 small low powered boats (total nominal horse power of 2,700 hp), more recently effort has increased to a total nominal horse power of 19,940 hp (1974-1987) (Aldebert 1997). Raja polystigma is known to be retained and marketed along the African coasts of the Mediterranean, where both trawl and artisanal fisheries operate (Bauchot 1987). This species is rarely landed in Italian Seas and it is not possible to monitor catches (C. Mancusi pers. obs.).|
|Conservation Actions:||None in place.|
Baino, R., Serena, F., Ragonese, S., Rey, J. and Rinelli P. 2001. Catch composition and abundance of Elasmobranchs based on the MEDITS program. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer Mèdit 36: 234.
Bauchot, M.L. 1987. Raies at autres batoidés. In: M. Fisher, M. Schneider and M.-L. Bauchot (eds), Fiches FAO d?Identification des Espècs pour les Besoins de la Peche. Méditerranée et Mer Noire. Zone de Peche 37. Revision 1. II, pp. 847-885. FAO, Rome.
Bertozzi, M., Pasolini P., Hemida F., Capapé C. and Tinti, F. 2003. Species diversity in Algerian skates. Proceedings of the 7th European Elasmobranch Association Meeting: 38. San Marino.
Bini G. 1967. Atlante dei pesci delle coste italiane: Leptocardi, Ciclostomi, Selaci. Mondo Sommerso, Milan.
Florio G., Consoli P., Prdichizzi F., Rinelli P. and Greco S. 2003. Annotated check list of the skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the south-Tyrrhenian sea from Cape Suvero (Calabria) to Cape S. Vito (Sicily). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2): 824-827.
Follesa M.C., Addis P., Murenu M., Saba R. and Sabatini A. 2003. Annotated check list of the skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the Sardinian seas. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2): 828-833.
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
Mancusi C., Pasolini P., Serena F., Tinti F. 2005. Taxonomic discrimination of Raja polystigma and Raja montagui in the Mediterranean Sea based on the comparative analysis of morphometric and genetic markers. 9th Meeting of the European Elasmobranch Association E.E.A. Book of abstracts. Principality of Monaco.
Marano, C.A., Manfrin-Piccinetti, G., Pasolini, P., Tinti, F. and Ungaro, N. 2003. Annotated checklist of the skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the Adriatic Sea. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2): 856-862.
Massuti, E. and Moranta, J. 2003. Demersal assemblages and depth distribution of elasmobranchs from the continental shelf and slope off the Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). ICES Journal of Marine Science 60: 753-766.
Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. and Bianchi, I. 1998. Guida degli squali e delle razze del Mediterraneo. Muzzio, Padova.
Ragonese, C.S., Cigala Fulgosi F., Bianchini, M.L., Norrito, G. and Sinacori, G. 2003. Annotated check list of the skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the Strait of Sicily (Central Mediterranean). Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2): 874-881.
Relini, G., Biagi, F., Serena, F., Belluscio, A., Spedicato, M.T., Rinelli, P., Follesa, M.C., Piccinetti, C., Ungaro, N., Sion, L. and Levi, D. 2000. Selachians fished by otter trawl in the Italian Seas. Biologia Marina Mediterránea 7(1): 347-384.
Serena F. 2005. Field identification guide to the sharks and rays of the Mediterranean and Black Sea. FAO, Rome.
Serena F., Baino R. and Righini P., 1988. Geographical and depth distribution of Rays in Northern Tyrrhenian sea. Rap. Comm. Int. Mer. Medit. 31(2): 277.
Serena F., Mancusi C., Barone M. and Abella A.J. 2005. Abundance and distribution of rays in the south Ligurian and north Thyrrenian Sea. 2005 ICES Annual Science Conference CM2005/N:20. Aberdeen, Scotland, UK.
Spedicato M.T., lembo G. and Carbonara P. 2003. Annotated check list of the skates (Chondrichthyes, Rajidae) in the central-southern Tyrrhenian sea. Biologia Marina Mediterranea 10(2): 941-945.
Stehmann, M. and Bürkel, D.L. 1984.. Rajidae. In: In, WHITEHEAD, P.J.P., BAUCHOT, M.-L., HUREAU, J.C., NIELSEN, J. & TORTONESE, E. (Eds): (ed.), Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean,, pp. (pp 163-196).. UNESCO., Paris.
Tortonese, E. 1956. Fauna d?Italia: Leptocardia, Ciclostomata, Selachii. Calderini, Bologna.
|Citation:||Ungaro, N., Serena, F., Dulvy, N., Tinti, F., Bertozzi, M., Mancusi, C. & Notarbartolo di Sciara, G. 2009. Raja polystigma. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 02 October 2014.|
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