|Scientific Name:||Urotrygon reticulata|
|Species Authority:||Miyake & McEachran, 1988|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Vulnerable A4d ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Robertson, R. & Valenti, S.V.|
|Reviewer(s):||Fowler, S.L. & Bates, H. (Shark Red List Authority)|
The Reticulated Round Stingray (Urotrygon reticulata) is a rare, poorly known stingray known only from Panama, at depths of 2-15 m. Little is known about the life history parameters of this species. The species' rarity and very shallow water distribution, compared to others of the same genus, most likely make it more vulnerable to depletion. The Reticulated Round Stingray is taken as bycatch by bottom trawl fisheries targeting shrimp throughout its range. Although no specific data are available, the species is rare with a restricted range in shallow waters, which are extensively fished by shrimp trawlers. There is no reason to expect that fishing pressure will decrease in the region. Given its rarity, restricted range, intensive fishing pressure across its inshore range, and the destruction and degradation of its coastal habitat, a precautionary assessment of Vulnerable is warranted on the basis of suspected population declines. Further research is required on the population trends and catch levels of this species in order to assess the full extent of decline.
|Range Description:||Eastern central Pacific: known only from Panama (McEachran 1995). Members of the genus Urotrygon are prone to misidentification, and as such the occurrence of this species is not well defined.|
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Pacific – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Apparently rare (R. Robertson pers. obs. 2007).|
|Habitat and Ecology:||A benthic species found on soft bottoms at depths of 2-15 m (R. Robertson pers. obs. 2007). This species reaches a maximum total length of at least 24.1 cm (McEachran 1995). Very little is known of its biology.|
This species is taken as bycatch by bottom trawl fisheries operating throughout its range, in shallow waters along the Pacific coast of Central America. Most Central American countries do not keep detailed records for reporting catches, neither internally, nor to the FAO, but instead list sharks and rays within a larger category termed "marine fishes, nei", where nei stands for "not explicitly identified" (Cailliet and Camhi 2005).
Trawl fisheries targeting shrimp and demersal fish operate along the Pacific coast of Central America (Cailliet and Camhi 2005, FAO 2007). Both industrial and artisanal trawl fisheries operate off the Pacific coast of Panama (FAO 2007). Inshore fishing pressure is intense throughout this species' range, with approximately 232 licensed vessels in the industrial fleet, using beam trawls in surface waters down to 200m depth targeting shrimp (FAO 2007). Legislation introduced in 1988 does not permit the replacement of shrimp vessels, so many are >20 years old, between 18-20 m in length, with engines between 150-380 HP and refrigerated holds (FAO 2007). There are about 4,959 vessels registered in the artisanal fishery, including canoes, boats and motor boats. Of these, 2937 vessels are authorised to catch fishes and 2,022 to catch shrimp (FAO 2007).
The threat status of this species is of concern, given its apparent rarity and restricted range in shallow waters that are extensively fished by shrimp trawlers (R. Robertson pers. obs. 2007). Although the species may be discarded due to its small size, post-discard survivorship is likely to be very low and the population is strongly suspected to have been depleted through fishing pressure (R. Robertson pers. obs. 2007).
The destruction and degradation of its inshore habitat are also likely to have large impacts on this species.
|Conservation Actions:||There are no known conservation measures in place for this species. Assessment of catches and further surveys are required to provide species-specific data on catch levels and population trends.|
Cailliet, G.M. and Camhi, M. 2005. Northeast Pacific. In: S.L. Fowler, M. Camhi, G.H. Burgess, G.M. Cailliet, S.V. Fordham, R.D. Cavanagh, C.A. Simpfendorfer and J.A. Musick (eds), Sharks, Rays and Chimaeras: The Status of the Chondrichthyan Fishes. Status Survey, pp. 172-185. IUCN/ SSC Shark Specialist Group, IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2007. Fisheries and Aquaculture Country Profile: Panama. Rome, Italy Available at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/countrysector/FI-CP_PA/es. (Accessed: 20/03/2008).
IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 3 November 2009).
McEachran, J.D. 1995.. Urolophidae. Rayas redondas. In: In: W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds) (eds), Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental., pp. p. 786-792. FAO,, Rome.
Miyake, T. and McEachran, J.D. 1988. Three new species of the stingray genus Urotrygon (Myliobatiformes: Urolophidae) from the Eastern Pacific. Bulletin of Marine Science 42(3): 366-375.
|Citation:||Robertson, R. & Valenti, S.V. 2009. Urotrygon reticulata. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 December 2014.|
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