|Scientific Name:||Fontitrygon margarita|
|Species Authority:||(Günther, 1870)|
Dasyatis margarita (Günther, 1870)
Trygon margarita Günther, 1870
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P. and Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dayatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139(3): 345-368. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Last et al. (2016) placed Dasyatis colarensis, D. garouaensis, D. geijskesi, D. margarita, D. margaritella, and Urogymnus ukpan within their newly described genus Fontitrygon.
Former records of Dasyatis (=Fontitrygon) margarita have included misidentified specimens of as the smaller sympatric species, F. margaritella. Both species are still mixed in landing statistics.
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A2bd+3bd+4bd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Compagno, L.J.V. & Marshall, L.J.|
|Reviewer(s):||Fowler, S.L. & Séret, B.|
This is an amended version of the 2004 assessment to accommodate the change in genus name.
Fontitrygon margarita is a large (to 65 cm disc width) demersal ray from West African marine and brackish waters, including lagoons and estuaries. Its biology is poorly known, but it is ovoviviparous with very low fecundity: it has only one to three pups per litter. It has been reported as common in a wide range of coastal and estuarine fishing gears, and is marketed for human consumption. The species is now reportedly uncommon in catches and it is assessed as Endangered on the basis of a significant decline that is likely to continue as a result of continued intensive and unregulated fishing pressure for this large ray within its limited range.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||Eastern central and southeast Atlantic/West African coast and islands, definitely from Senegal to Congo. Records outside this range (from Angola to Mauritania and the Canaries) may be based on D. margaritella, which has been confused with this species. As a result, the distribution of D. margarita may prove to be smaller than described here (Compagno and Roberts 1984, B. Séret pers. comm. 2008).|
Native:Benin; Cameroon; Congo; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mauritania; Nigeria; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Togo
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:|
Atlantic – southeast; Atlantic – eastern central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Tropical. Formerly reported as common in marine and estuarine habitats (Compagno and Roberts 1984), but records may have included misidentified specimens of D. margaritella. Biology unknown, other than a reported maximum size of 100 cm disc width (DW) (Stehmann 1981). Ovoviviparous, with 1-3 pups (B. Séret pers. comm. 2008).|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threats to D. margarita are fisheries and, to a lesser extent, habitat modification. Inshore rays are susceptible to a wide range of fishing gears. Fishing for D. margarita occurs in inshore waters in all its distribution range along West African coasts off Senegal, Ivory Coast and Ghana, where it is caught mainly by artisanal and small scale commercial fisheries using trammelnets, bottom trawls and beach seines (Stehmann 1981), but also by gill nets, fish traps, beach seines, and line fishing. These threats probably operate virtually throughout its range. Habitat modification/degradation attributed to agricultural chemicals and light industry development may also be a problem in some areas.|
|Conservation Actions:||No specific conservation measures are in place at this time, although the Members of the West African Sub-regional Fisheries Commission and some other African States are developing National Shark Plans. Other range States should be encouraged to follow suit in order to facilitate the conservation and management of all chondrichthyan species in the region, taking account of the vulnerability of this and other large inshore regional endemics to unregulated fishing activity. There is a need to identify correctly and monitor this species in catches and to clarify its geographic and depth range. There is an urgent need for accurate population surveys, and studies of biology and behaviour. Effective protected areas are needed to combat harvest mortality and habitat degradation for this and other inshore species.|
Compagno, L.J.V. and Roberts, T.R. 1984. Dasyatidae. In: J. Daget, J.P. Gosse and D.F.E. Thys van den Audenaerde (eds), Check-list of the freshwater fishes of Africa (CLOFFA), pp. 4-5. ORSTOM, Paris and MRAC, Tervuren.
IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).
Last, P.R., Naylor, G.J.P. and Manjaji-Matsumoto, B.M. 2016. A revised classification of the family Dayatidae (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) based on new morphological and molecular insights. Zootaxa 4139(3): 345-368. http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4139.3.2.
Séret, B. 1990. Dasyatidae. In: In: C. Levêque, D. Paugy, and G.G. Teugels (eds) (eds), Faune des poissons d'eaux douces et saumâtres d'Afrique de l'Ouest Tome 1. Coll. Faune Tropicale n° 28, pp. p. 62-75. Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgique and O.R.S.T.O.M, Paris, France.
Séret, B. 2006.. Guide d'identification des principales espèces de requins et de raies de l'Atlantique oriental tropical, à l'usage des enquêteurs et biologistes des pêches. FIBA, IUCN & PRCM.
Séret, B. in press. Dasyatidae. FAO, Rome (in press).
Stehmann, M. 1981.. Dasyatidae. In: In Fischer, W., Bianchi, G. and Scott, W.B. (eds.). (eds), FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Eastern Central Atlantic (fishing areas 34, 47 (in part))..
|Citation:||Compagno, L.J.V. & Marshall, L.J. 2016. Fontitrygon margarita. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T161495A104172339.Downloaded on 28 February 2017.|
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