|Scientific Name:||Papio cynocephalus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1766)|
|Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Grubb et al. (2003) and Groves (2001, 2005) recognize three subspecies: Papio cynocephalus cynocephalus; P. c. ibeanus; and P. c. kindae.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor/s:||Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y.|
|Reviewer/s:||Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Listed as Least Concern as the species is widespread and common, present in numerous protected areas, and there are no major range-wide threats believed to be resulting in a significant population decline.
|Range Description:||This species ranges from Somalia, coastal Kenya, and northern Tanzania southwards to the Zambezi valley, and across south-central Africa to central Angola (Benguela) (Jolly 1993). There are hybrid zones with Papio anubis near Sultan Hamud, Kenya (2°02'S, 37°23'E), Amboseli National Park (Kenya) and Mkomazi Reserve in Tanzania. There is a broad clinal hybrid zone between Laikipia District, just to the north-east and east of Mt. Kenya, and the Lower Tana River, Kenya coast. Baboons in this >200-km wide region are intermediate and cannot be readily allocated to either P. anubis or P. cynocephalus (baboons become increasingly “yellow-like” in their phenotypes towards the Kenya Coast; T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). Sympatric with Cercopithecus pygerythrus, Erythrocebus patas and Cercopithecus mitis (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.).
There are three subspecies: P. c. cynocephalus occurs in the central and south-eastern parts of the range including Zambia east of the Luangwa, Malawi, northern Mozambique, and most of Tanzania; P. c. ibeanus is found in southern Somalia, and south-east and coastal Kenya; P. c. kindae is found on the upper Zambezi in south-western Zambia.
Native:Angola (Angola); Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Ethiopia; Kenya; Malawi; Mozambique; Somalia; Tanzania, United Republic of; Zambia
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is widespread and locally common, but patchily distributed over its extensive range.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||
Over a great part of this species' range, it is specific to fire-climax Miombo (Brachystegia) woodland. Both within this zone and especially to the north-east, it also occupies dry bushland, thickets, steppes, and the coastal littoral (including mangroves); able to persist in secondary and/or highly fragmented vegetation, including cultivated area. It is an opportunistic omnivore which primarily feeds on the seeds, flesh, and pods of the leguminous trees including Acacia, Albizia, mopane (Colophospermum), and tamarind, all of which are seasonal staples. In addition, Miombo fauna such as mopane worms and various other insects are equally important at times. In addition, this species also eats grasses, shoots, fungi, lichens, and many invertebrates. It prefers foods with an unusual chemistry, implying that this species has acquired special digestive adaptations. This may help to explain why the boundaries of its distribution do not follow any geographic discontinuities but coincide very closely with the distribution of a plant community (Jolly 1993; Kingdon 1997).
The Yellow Baboon typically forages in extended, well-spaced troops which can occasionally number up to 300 animals (with an average of 30-80). During the calving season, many young antelopes and hares are caught.
|Major Threat(s):||There are no major threats to this species, although it has been locally displaced by agriculture and tree clearance in some parts of the range (T. Butynski and Y. de Jong pers. comm.). In addition, it is commonly exported from East Africa for medical research.|
|Conservation Actions:||This species is listed under Appendix II of CITES. It is listed as Vermin under the African Convention. It is present in many protected areas. Research into the boundaries and possible reasons for separation into distinctly eastern and western subspecies could be useful.|
Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA.
Groves, C. P. 2005. Order Primates. In: D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder (eds), Mammal Species of the World, pp. 111-184. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Grubb, P., Butynski, T. M., Oates, J. F., Bearder, S. K., Disotell, T. R., Groves, C. P. and Struhsaker, T. T. 2003. Assessment of the Diversity of African Primates. International Journal of Primatology 24(6): 1301-1357.
Jolly, C. J. 1993. Species, subspecies, and baboon systematics. In: W.H. Kimbel and L.B. Martin (eds), Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 67–107. Plenum Press, New York.
Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press Natural World, San Diego, California, USA.
|Citation:||Kingdon, J., Butynski, T.M. & De Jong, Y. 2008. Papio cynocephalus. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 15 March 2014.|
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