Papio hamadryas 


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Primates Cercopithecidae

Scientific Name: Papio hamadryas
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1758)
Common Name(s):
English Hamadryas Baboon, Sacred Baboon
French Droguera, Hamadryas
Spanish Papión Negro

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Gippoliti, S. & Ehardt, T.
Reviewer(s): Mittermeier, R.A. & Rylands, A.B. (Primate Red List Authority)
Listed as Least Concern as this species is widespread and abundant, and there are no major range-wide threats believed to be resulting in a significant decline.
Previously published Red List assessments:
1996 Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
1990 Rare (R)
1988 Rare (R)
1988 Rare (R)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: This species occurs in north-east Africa. It is principally found in Ethiopia, although its range extends from the Red Sea Hills and Suakin (Sudan) through Eritrea and Djibouti (especially in the Goda Mountains) to northern Somalia. It is also found in the Red Sea Hills in the south-west Arabian Peninsula opposite the Horn of Africa. Historically, its range extended into Egypt, but not into recent times (i.e., post 1500AD; see Osborn and Osbornová 1998).
Countries occurrence:
Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Saudi Arabia; Somalia; Sudan; Yemen
Regionally extinct:
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: This species is abundant, with the majority of the population in Ethiopia, and may even have increased because of loss of predators and small-scale agriculture. Kunzel et al. (2000) estimated the total population in Djibouti at around 2,000 animals, and that the population was stable.
Current Population Trend: Increasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented: No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: This species inhabits arid subdesert, steppe, hillsides, escarpments, and mountains bordering the Red Sea, generally at altitudes up to 1,500 m. However, it appears to be seasonally migratory in at least some parts of its range in Ethiopia, where bands may move up into neighbouring mountainous areas (up to 3,300 m in the Simien Mountains National Park) in the wet season. This species is dependent on water, and is never found far from water sources. It is an opportunistic omnivore, and seasonally important foods include grass, buds, invertebrates, and the fruits of desert plants (notably heglig Balanites and buffalo thorn Ziziphus). The basic social unit consists of one male and several females.
Systems: Terrestrial

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Capes are used in ceremonial cloaks. Offtake for research purposes was in the past and has apparently now stopped.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): There are no major range-wide threats at present, although locally it may be at risk through loss of habitat due to major agricultural expansion and irrigation projects. In addition, adult males are hunted for their skins (which are used to embellish ceremonial cloaks in Ethiopia). They were formerly trapped in large numbers for medical research.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: It is listed under Appendix II of CITES, and is classed as Vermin in the African Convention along with all other species of baboon. A 'pure' subpopulation of this species is found in the Simien Mountains National Park, while P. hamadryas-P. anubis hybrids occur in the Awash National Park. In addition, the species occurs in the proposed Yangudi Rassa National Park, the Harar Wildlife Sanctuary, and a number of Wildlife Reserves in the lower Awash valley and in northern Eritrea (although it is important to note that the Awash reserves are all affected by agricultural schemes).

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability: Suitable  
4. Grassland -> 4.7. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude
suitability: Marginal  
0. Root -> 6. Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks)
suitability: Suitable  

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
  Included in international legislation:Yes
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:Yes

♦  Wearing apparel, accessories
 National : ✓ 

♦  Research
 International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Jolly, C. J. 1993. Species, subspecies, and baboon systematics. In: W.H. Kimbel and L.B. Martin (eds), Species, Species Concepts, and Primate Evolution, pp. 67–107. Plenum Press, New York.

Kingdon, J. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA.

Künzel, T., Rayaleh, H.A. and Künzel, S. 2000. Status Assessment Survey on Wildlife in Djibouti. Final Report. Zoological Society for the Conservation of Species and Populations (Z.S.C.S.P.) and Office National du Tourisme et de l’Artisanat (O.N.T.A.).

Osborn, D. J. and Osbornová, J. 1998. The Mammals of Ancient Egypt. Aris & Phillips, Warminster.

Yalden, D. W., Largen, M. J. and Kock, D. 1977. Catalogue of the mammals of Ethiopia. 3. Primates. Monitore zoologico italiano/Italian Journal of Zoology, N.S. Supplemento 9(1): 1-52.

Citation: Gippoliti, S. & Ehardt, T. 2008. Papio hamadryas. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T16019A5354647. . Downloaded on 26 November 2015.
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