|Scientific Name:||Colinus virginianus|
|Species Authority:||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Colinus virginianus (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) was provisionally split into C. virginianus and C. ridgwayi by Stotz et al. (1996) but this treatment has not been adopted, following SACC (2005).|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Near Threatened ver 3.1|
|Reviewer/s:||Butchart, S. & Symes, A.|
|Contributor/s:||Butcher, G., Rosenberg, K. & Wells, J.|
This species qualifies as Near Threatened because it has suffered moderately rapid declines in recent decades becoming rarer in many traditional strongholds owing to habitat conversion.
|Range Description:||Colinus virginianus is resident throughout east North America (from south Mexico and west Guatemala through the USA to extreme southern Canada) (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Brennan 1999). Populations of subspecies cubanensis on Cuba and the Isle of Pines may be natural, but many introduced populations exist across the world (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Brennan 1999, Madge and McGowan 2002). It has suffered a steady, long-term decline in most states in the USA (Brennan 1999, G. Butcher in litt. 2003), with the exception of Texas (Brennan 1999). Declines are greatest in the south-east (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Brennan 1999). Mexican populations are poorly known and some subspecies could be threatened (del Hoyo et al. 1994).|
Native:Canada; Cuba; Guatemala; Mexico; United States
Introduced:Bahamas; China; Dominican Republic; France; Haiti; Italy; Portugal; Puerto Rico; Turks and Caicos Islands
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||Rich et al. (2004)|
|Habitat and Ecology:||It is found in early successional vegetation in a variety of habitats, created by disturbances from fire, agriculture and timber-harvesting (Brennan 1999). It is principally a seed feeder but insects form an important component of the diet in summer (del Hoyo et al. 1994). It forms coveys of 8-20 birds occupying a home range of approximately 10 ha.|
|Major Threat(s):||Changes in agricultural land use (weed removal and herbicide use), forestry (high-density pine plantations), and lack of use of prescribed fire have resulted in widespread habitat fragmentation (Brennan 1999). Over 20,000,000 individuals were recently being killed annually by hunters in the USA (del Hoyo et al. 1994); poor management of populations could result in declines.|
Conservation Actions Underway
Subspecies ridgwayi is on CITES Appendix I (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Restoration efforts are attempting to conserve this population in Arizona (del Hoyo et al. 1994). Conservation Actions Proposed
Frequent vegetation disturbance (every 1-5 yr) from prescribed fire and/or mechanical disturbances is essential for maintaining abundant populations in forest habitats. Maintaining tree canopy cover at <50% to create open, parkland conditions is essential. Burn 50-75% of understorey vegetation annually during late winter to early summer, in small, patchy mosaics. Research needs to be done in order to understand how to mitigate potential additive effects of hunting mortality (e.g. experiments that examine population productivity and recovery at various harvest regimes and densities). Optimal timing of prescribed fire for habitat management needs to be determined from field research and experimentation. Removal and reduction of mammalian predators during nesting may be useful if also conducted within the context of intensive habitat management. Improve understanding of the Mexican populations.
Brennan, L. A. 1999. Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 397, pp. 1-28. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and the American Ornithologists' Union, Philadephia and Washington, DC.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1994. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 2: New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).
Madge, S.; McGowan, P. 2002. Pheasants, partridges and grouse: including buttonquails, sandgrouse and allies. Christopher Helm, London.
Rich, T.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Bradstreet, M.S.W.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dunn, E.H.; Hunter, W.C.; Inigo-Elias, E.E.; Martell, A.M.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Wendt, J.S.; Will, T.C. 2004. Partners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.
|Citation:||BirdLife International 2012. Colinus virginianus. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 20 May 2013.|
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