Panthera pardus ssp. orientalis


Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family

Scientific Name: Panthera pardus ssp. orientalis
Species Authority: (Schlegel, 1857)
Parent Species:
Common Name(s):
English Amur Leopard
Taxonomic Notes: Uphyrkina et al. (2001) affirmed subspecies distinction for P. p. orientalis based on molecular markers. The Amur Leopard was found to have the lowest levels of genetic variation of any leopard subspecies (Uphyrkina et al. 2002).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Critically Endangered C2a(ii); D ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor(s): Jackson, P. & Nowell, K.
Reviewer(s): Nowell, K., Breitenmoser-Wursten, C., Breitenmoser, U. (Cat Red List Authority) & Hoffmann, M. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)
The Amur leopard is a very rare subspecies, with a 2007 census counting only 14-20 adults and 5-6 cubs in the southwestern Primorye region of Russia. It faces numerous threats, including encroaching civilization, new roads, poaching, exploitation of forests and climate change. Numbers have fluctuated over recent years - a 2003 census counted 20-21 adults and 4-5 cubs, and a 2000 census counted 13-16 adults with 1-3 cubs (Anonymous 2007). Prior to this, the population had been declining (Pikunov et al. 2000). Its range is estimated at just 2,500 kmĀ² (Pikunov et al. 2000). The Amur leopard is extinct in China and the Korean Peninsula (Anonymous 2007).
1996 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population Trend: Decreasing

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Systems: Terrestrial

Bibliography [top]

Anonymous. 2007. Amur leopard remains on the brink of extinction. Cat News 46: 51.

Miththapala, S., Seidensticker, J. and O'Brien, S. J. 1996. Phylogeographic subspecies recognition in leopards (Panthera pardus): Molecular genetic variation. Conservation Biology 10: 1115-1132.

Pikunov, D. G., Aramilev, V. V., Fomenko, V. V., Miquelle, D. V., Abramov, V. K., Korkishko, V. G. and Nikolaev, I. G. 2000. Endangered species: The decline of the Amur leopard in the Russian Far East. Russian Conservation News 24: 19.

Uphyrkina, O., Johnson, W.E., Quigley, H.B., Miquelle, D.G., Marker, L., Bush, M.E. and O'Brien, S.J. 2001. Phylogenetics, genome diversity and origin of modern leopard, Panthera pardus. Molecular Ecology 10: 2617.

Uphyrkina, O., Miquelle, D., Quigley, H., Driscoll, C. and O'Brien, S. J. 2002. Conservation genetics of the Far Eastern leopard (Panthera pardus orientalis). Journal of Heredity 93: 303-311.

Citation: Jackson, P. & Nowell, K. 2008. Panthera pardus ssp. orientalis. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.3. <>. Downloaded on 31 March 2015.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided