Pan troglodytes ssp. verus
|Scientific Name:||Pan troglodytes ssp. verus|
|Species Authority:||Schwarz, 1934|
See Pan troglodytes
|Taxonomic Source(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Rylands, A.B. and Wilson D.E. 2013. Handbook of the Mammals of the World: Volume 3 Primates. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.|
|Taxonomic Notes:||Chimpanzee taxonomy remains an active area of research. Four subspecies are commonly recognized: the West African Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus; the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee P. t. ellioti; the Central Chimpanzee P. t. troglodytes; and the Eastern Chimpanzee P. t. schweinfurthii. Recent mitochondrial DNA work (Gonder et al. 2006) shows that schweinfurthii is embedded in troglodytes, and suggests that there are only two major clades of chimpanzees: Pan troglodytes ellioti in West Africa and P. t. troglodytes in Central and East Africa. Based on recent nuclear DNA work, as well as considerations of the overall similarity in behaviour and morphology of the proposed subspecies, Fischer et al. (2006) argue that differences between chimpanzee populations are too small to warrant subspecific designations. While the appropriate taxonomic labelling for different chimpanzee populations remains unresolved, the relative importance of different threats faced by chimpanzees varies across Africa, making a regional approach valuable for conservation purposes. We, therefore, use a four-subspecies classification system here, recognizing that future work may lead to a consensus recognizing more or fewer subspecies.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Endangered A4cd ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Humle, T., Boesch, C., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Herbinger, I., Blom, A. & Oates, J.F.|
|Reviewer(s):||Mittermeier, R.A., Butynski, T.M. & Williamson, E.A. (Primate Red List Authority)|
Due to high levels of exploitation, loss of habitat and habitat quality as a result of human activities, this subspecies is estimated to have experienced a significant population reduction in the past 20 to 30 years (one generation is estimated to be 20 years: Boesch and Boesch-Achermann 2000) and it is suspected that this reduction will continue for the next 20 to 30 years. The maximum population reduction over a three-generation (i.e., 60 year) period from the 1970s to 2030 is suspected to exceed 50%, hence qualifying this taxon for Endangered under criterion A4. The causes of the reduction, although largely understood, have certainly not ceased and are not easily reversible. P. t. verus still occurs in nine African countries. Nevertheless, it is very rare or close to extinction in four, including Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal (Kormos et al. 2003). It has already disappeared in the wild from Togo (Campbell and Radley 2006) and the Gambia. The subspecies is also possibly now extinct in Benin (Nobime, in prep.). P. t. verus, therefore, survives mainly in Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Mali. Unfortunately, no recent data are available to allow for an estimation of rates of decline. However, it is unlikely that P. t. verus meets the threshold of an 80% population reduction over three generations to qualify as Critically Endangered. The suspected future continuation of population reduction is, therefore, a precautionary approach based on the rapidly increasing human population density, human activities across many protected and non protected areas, and the high degree of political instability in some range states. P. t. verus, together with P. t. ellioti, still remains one of the most threatened subspecies.
|Previously published Red List assessments:|
|Range Description:||P. t. verus (Schwarz, 1934) is found in West Africa from Senegal to Ghana.|
Native:Côte d'Ivoire; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Liberia; Mali; Senegal; Sierra Leone
Possibly extinct:Benin; Burkina Faso; Togo
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||P. t. verus is patchily distributed and number between 21,300 and 55,600 with the greatest number estimated to be found in Guinea (Kormos et al. 2003).|
|Current Population Trend:||Decreasing|
|Habitat and Ecology:||Chimpanzees are found predominantly in moist and dry forests, and forest galleries extending into savanna woodlands. They are omnivorous, and their diet is highly variable according to individual populations and seasons. Fruit comprises about half the diet, but leaves, bark, and stems are also important. Mammals comprise a small but significant component of the diet of many populations. Chimpanzees form social communities of 5 to 150 animals. Home ranges are larger in woodland forest mosaics than in mixed forest, and average 12.5 km² (range 5 to 400 km²).|
|Major Threat(s):||See species-level assessment (Pan troglodytes).|
|Conservation Actions:||See species-level assessment (Pan troglodytes).|
Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (comps and eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Hilton-Taylor, C. (ed.). 2000. 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 1990. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).
IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre. 1988. IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Lee, P.C., Thornback, J. and Bennett, E.L. 1988. Threatened Primates of Africa: The IUCN Red Data Book. IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre (CMC), Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
|Citation:||Humle, T., Boesch, C., Duvall, C., Ellis, C.M., Farmer, K.H., Herbinger, I., Blom, A. & Oates, J.F. 2008. Pan troglodytes ssp. verus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T15935A5323101.Downloaded on 24 July 2016.|
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