Aloe massawana 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Plantae Tracheophyta Liliopsida Liliales Aloaceae

Scientific Name: Aloe massawana Reynolds
Taxonomic Notes: The specific epithet refers to plants from the coast of Eritrea, which Reynolds considered to be identical to plants from north of Dar es Salaam. Reynolds thought this latter material was introduced, but further collections suggest the species is native to East African coastal regions, and Carter (1994) suggested that its identity with Eritrean material should be considered with caution. But recent flowering material indicates that this species may well be conspecific with the aloe from Massawana now called (A. eumassawana). It is probable that A. massawana is synonymous with A. kirkii from Zanzibar, but the type material at RBG Kew for the latter is insufficient to confirm this (Carter 1994).

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Vulnerable B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) ver 3.1
Year Published: 2009
Date Assessed: 2006-11-04
Needs updating
Assessor(s): Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project Participants
Reviewer(s): Beentje, H., Gereau, R., Kabuye, C., Kalema, J., Luke, Q., Lyaruu, H., Maunder, M., Mwachala, G., Ndangalasi, H., Njau, F., Schatz, G. & Wabuele, E. (East African Plants Red List Authority)
The extent of occurrence and area of occupancy are small enough for a Vulnerable listing; it is known from only five locations which are severely fragmented and there is continuing decline due to human activities along the coast.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:A coastal species found in southern Kenya and northern Tanzania as far south as Dar es Salaam and on a small island near Zanzibar. The northern most collection in Kenya is doubtful, as is any putative collections from Eritrea.
Countries occurrence:
Kenya; Tanzania, United Republic of
Additional data:
Estimated area of occupancy (AOO) - km2:500-1999
Number of Locations:5
Upper elevation limit (metres):20
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Not very common.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:Yes

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:A decumbent succulent herb which grows right on the beach front in the salt spray zone on coral outcrops. Also recorded in sandy soils, in grass and open thickets near the sea shore.
Continuing decline in area, extent and/or quality of habitat:Yes

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): The habitat is sensitive as it is a zone impacted by human activities (coastal development, etc.). Has attractive flowers so would also be sought by succulent collectors.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Not known for certain from any protected area. There is a sight record from Mtwara - Mnazi Bay/Ruvuma Estuary Marine Protected area, but the identity of this still needs to be confirmed.

Classifications [top]

3. Shrubland -> 3.5. Shrubland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
suitability:Suitable  major importance:Yes
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
In-Place Species Management
In-Place Education
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.3. Tourism & recreation areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.2. Gathering terrestrial plants -> 5.2.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing ♦ scope:Unknown ♦ severity:Unknown ⇒ Impact score:Unknown 
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

♦  Pets/display animals, horticulture
 National : ✓  International : ✓ 

Bibliography [top]

Carter, S. 1994. Aloaceae. In: R.M. Polhill (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

IUCN. 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2009.2). Available at: (Accessed: 3 November 2009).

Reynolds, G.W. 1966. The Aloes of Tropical Africa and Madagascar. The Trustees of the Aloes Book Fund, Mbabane, Swaziland.

Citation: Eastern Arc Mountains & Coastal Forests CEPF Plant Assessment Project Participants. 2009. Aloe massawana. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2009: e.T157970A5178505. . Downloaded on 24 April 2018.
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