Ourebia ourebi 

Scope: Global
Language: English

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Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Mammalia Cetartiodactyla Bovidae

Scientific Name: Ourebia ourebi (Zimmermann, 1783)
Infra-specific Taxa Assessed:
Common Name(s):
English Oribi
French Ourébi
Antilope ourebi Zimmermann, 1783
Taxonomic Notes: Numerous subspecies of the Oribi have been described but most of these reflect individual variation and have little or no validity. Haggard's Oribi (O. o. haggardi) of eastern coastal Kenya and adjacent Somalia is a geographically isolated subspecies which is well differentiated in size and colour from other Oribi. Another distinctive subspecies from East Africa, the Kenya Oribi (O. o. keniae) from the lower slopes of Mount Kenya, is now apparently extinct.

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2016-01-07
Assessor(s): IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer(s): Hoffmann, M. & Mallon, D.
The total population is estimated at ca. 750,000, 50% of which are in protected areas and stable in many of them, while populations outside protected areas are gradually declining. If current trends continue, some of the Oribi’s marginal populations (and possible subspecies) may face eventual extinction. However, the species’ overall conservation status should remain satisfactory as long as it continues to exist in healthy, stable populations in a large number of protected areas and hunting zones and in some other areas with low densities of settlement.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Oribi has a patchy distribution ranging from Senegal to Ethiopia and Eritrea and south through eastern Africa to Angola and the Eastern Cape of South Africa (East 1999, Brashares and Arcese 2013). It still occurs widely within its former distribution but its populations are becoming increasingly fragmented as it is gradually eliminated from moderately to densely settled areas. They are probably extinct in Burundi (East 1999).

Haggard’s Oribi is entirely isolated from other forms in and occurs in coastal Kenya to southern Somalia (Hillman et al. 1998, East 1999).

The Kenya Oribi formerly occurred on the lower slopes of Mount Kenya but is now extinct (Hillman et al. 1998, East 1999).
Countries occurrence:
Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo, The Democratic Republic of the; Côte d'Ivoire; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Lesotho; Malawi; Mali; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; South Sudan; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania, United Republic of; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe
Possibly extinct:
Regionally extinct:
Additional data:
Lower elevation limit (metres):50
Upper elevation limit (metres):2000
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Oribi are locally common in suitable habitats at densities of 2-10 animals/km², but have been recorded at densities up to 45 animals/km² in exceptionally productive tropical grasslands and treeless floodplains (Brashares and Arcese 2013, and references therein). Densities estimated from ground counts range from 0.1-0.4/km² in areas where it is uncommon or depleted (East 1999).

East (1999) produced a total population estimate of 750,000. Population trend is stable in many protected areas but decreasing in some others which receive minimal or no protection. Outside protected areas, population trend is gradually downwards in many parts of the Oribi’s range as human populations increase and settlement expands, although its populations are stable in some thinly settled, unprotected regions where hunting pressures are relatively low.
Current Population Trend:Decreasing
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:Oribi inhabit savanna woodlands, floodplains and other open grasslands, from around sea level to about 2,000 m asl. They reach their highest density on floodplains and moist tropical grasslands, especially in association with large grazers.
Generation Length (years):3.9

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: For information on use and trade, see under Threats.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): It has been eliminated from substantial parts of its former range by the spread of agricultural settlement, livestock and increased hunting for meat. In the Comoé N.P. in Côte d’Ivoire, Oribi experienced a decline of around 92% between 1978 and 1998 primarily due to poaching (Fischer and Linsenmair 2001). It nevertheless shows considerable resilience to hunting in some parts of its range, although generally not to the extent of highly resilient species such as Bushbuck and Grey Duiker. Its populations are becoming increasingly fragmented as it is gradually eliminated from moderately to densely settled areas (Brashares and Arces 2013).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: Its distribution and abundance are increasingly centred on protected areas (about half the total population occurs in and around protected areas) and some other areas where human population densities are very low, such as Niokolo-Koba (Senegal), Comoe (Ivory Coast), Arly-Singou and Nazinga (Burkina Faso), Mole and Bui (Ghana), Pendjari (Benin), eastern Salamat (Chad), Bouba Ndjida, Benoue, Faro and adjoining hunting zones (Cameroon), Manovo-Gounda-St. Floris, and adjoining hunting zones (Central African Republic), Garamba, Upemba and Kundelungu (Congo-Kinshasa), Omo (Ethiopia), Murchison Falls, Lake Mburo and Kidepo Valley (Uganda), Masai Mara and Ruma (Kenya), Serengeti (Tanzania), Kafue, Bangweulu and Liuwa Plain (Zambia) and Golden Gate Highlands N.P. (South Africa). Surveys in the dry season in South Sudan have shown Oribis to be surviving in much reduced numbers in Boma and Southern National Parks (Fay et al. 2007).

Haggard’s Oribi occurs in Boni and Dodori National Reserves in Kenya, but there is no recent information available on its status.

Classifications [top]

2. Savanna -> 2.1. Savanna - Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.5. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Dry
4. Grassland -> 4.6. Grassland - Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded
2. Land/water management -> 2.1. Site/area management
3. Species management -> 3.1. Species management -> 3.1.1. Harvest management
4. Education & awareness -> 4.3. Awareness & communications

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
  Action Recovery plan:No
  Systematic monitoring scheme:No
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Conservation sites identified:Yes, over entire range
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
  Invasive species control or prevention:No
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:No
  Successfully reintroduced or introduced beningly:No
  Subject to ex-situ conservation:No
In-Place Education
  Subject to recent education and awareness programmes:No
  Included in international legislation:No
  Subject to any international management/trade controls:No
1. Residential & commercial development -> 1.1. Housing & urban areas
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.1. Annual & perennial non-timber crops -> 2.1.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

2. Agriculture & aquaculture -> 2.3. Livestock farming & ranching -> 2.3.4. Scale Unknown/Unrecorded
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.1. Ecosystem conversion
  • 1. Ecosystem stresses -> 1.2. Ecosystem degradation

5. Biological resource use -> 5.1. Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals -> 5.1.1. Intentional use (species is the target)
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

1. Research -> 1.1. Taxonomy
3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Brashares, J.S. and Arcese, P. 2013. Ourebia ourebi Oribi. In: J. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa. Volume VI: Pigs, Hippopotamuses, Chevrotain, Giraffes, Deer and Bovids, Bloomsbury Publishing, London.

East, R. (compiler). 1999. African Antelope Database 1998. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Fay, M., Elkan, P., Marjan, M. and Grossman, F. 2007. Aerial Surveys of Wildlife, Livestock, and Human Activity in and around Existing and Proposed Protected Areas of Southern Sudan, Dry Season 2007. WCS – Southern Sudan Technical Report.

Fischer, F. and Linsenmair, K. E. 2001. Decreases in ungulate population densities. Examples from the Comoe National Park, Ivory Coast. Biological Conservation 101: 131-135.

Hillman, J. C., Cunningham van Someren, G. R., Gakahu, C. G. and East, R. 1988. Chapter 8: Kenya. In: R. East (ed.), Antelopes: Global Survey and Regional Action Plan. Part 1. East and Northeast Africa, pp. 41-53. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-1. Available at: (Accessed: 30 June 2016).

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group. 2016. Ourebia ourebi. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T15730A50192202. . Downloaded on 22 June 2018.
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