Map_thumbnail_large_font

Oryx dammah

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_offStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_onStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA MAMMALIA CETARTIODACTYLA BOVIDAE

Scientific Name: Oryx dammah
Species Authority: (Cretzschmar, 1826)
Common Name/s:
English Scimitar-horned Oryx
French Oryx De Libye, Oryx Algazelle
Spanish Orix De Cimitarra

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Extinct in the Wild ver 3.1
Year Published: 2008
Date Assessed: 2008-06-30
Assessor/s: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group
Reviewer/s: Mallon, D.P. & Plowman, A. (Antelope Red List Authority)
Justification:
There has been no definite evidence of the survival of this species in the wild for more than 15 years. Sporadic reports of animals sighted in Niger and Chad have never been substantiated, despite extensive surveys dedicated to detection of Sahelo-Saharan antelopes carried out in Chad and Niger in 2001-2004.
History:
2007 Extinct in the Wild
2000 Extinct in the Wild
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Endangered (Groombridge 1994)
1990 Endangered (IUCN 1990)
1988 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1988)
1986 Endangered (IUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 1986)

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description: May formerly have been widespread across North Africa, at least in arid and Saharan areas, but now Extinct in the Wild over all its range. Captive herds are kept in fenced protected areas in Tunisia, Senegal and Morocco (Sous Massa National Park (probably outside the known historical range) as part of long-term reintroduction programmes.
Countries:
Regionally extinct:
Algeria; Burkina Faso; Chad; Egypt; Libya; Mali; Mauritania; Morocco; Niger; Nigeria; Senegal; Sudan; Tunisia; Western Sahara
Range Map: Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: An estimated 500 Oryx survived at least until 1985 in Chad and Niger, but by 1988 only a few dozen individuals survived in the wild and since then there have been no confirmed reports of any wild oryx surviving in the wild (Morrow in press).

There are captive populations in fenced protected areas in several former range states: in Tunisia, there were 130 in Bou Hedma N.P. in 2005, 25 in Sidi-Toui N.P. (2006), and 12 in Oued Dekouk N.P. (2006); in Morocco, there were 240 in Souss-Massa N.P. in 2005; and in Senegal, there were 18 at Guembeul and 12 at Ferlo in 2004 (see Morrow in press, and refs therein). These populations are all maintained in fenced enclosures of varying sizes and are subject to different degrees of management. None is eligible for consideration as a released population for assessment purposes.

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: Primarily inhabits sub-desert, annual grassland steppe areas. Found in rolling dunes, grassy steppes and wooded inter-dunal depressions, rarely entering true desert or true Sahelian bush. The Scimitar-horned Oryx is well adapted to arid areas.
Systems: Terrestrial

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Overhunting and habitat loss, including competition with domestic livestock, have been reported as the main reasons for the extinction of the wild population of Scimitar-horned Oryx (Mallon and Kingswood 2001, Devillers and Devillers-Terschuren 2005, Morrow in press).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: The Scimitar-horned Oryx is listed on CMS Appendix 1. A global captive breeding programme was initiated in the 1960s. In 2005 there were at least 1,550 captive animals held in managed breeding programmes around the world (Gilbert 2005). In addition, a large number, probably >4,000 are kept in a private collection in the United Arab Emirates. Additional animals are likely held on private game ranches in the USA. As part of planned reintroduction projects, animals have been released into fenced protected areas in Tunisia (Bou Hedma National Park 1985, Sidi Toui National Park 1999, Oued Dekouk National Park 1999), Morocco (Souss-Massa National Park 1995), and Senegal (Ferlo Faunal Reserve 1998, Guembuel Wildlife Reserve 1999). Reintroduction is currently also planned at a site in Niger. It is listed on CITES Appendix I.

Bibliography [top]

Devillers, P. and Devillers-Terschuren, J. 2005. Oryx dammah. In: R. C. Beudels, P. Devillers, R. M. Lafontaine, J. Devillers-Terschuren and M. O. Beudels (eds), Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. Status and Perspectives. Report on the conservation status of the six Sahelo-Saharan Antelopes. CMS SSA Concerted Action. 2nd edition. CMS Technical Series Publication N°11, 2005. UNEP/CMS Secretariat, Bonn, Germany.

East, R. 1999. African Antelope Database 1999. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Gilbert, T. 2005. International Studbook for scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). Unpublished Report by Marwell Preservation Trust, Winchester, UK.

IUCN. 2008. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 5 October 2008).

Mallon, D. P. and Kingswood, S. C. 2001. Antelopes. Part 4: North Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Global Survey and Regional Action Plans. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

Morrow, C. M. In press. Oryx dammah. In: J. S. Kingdon and M. Hoffmann (eds), The Mammals of Africa, Academic Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Newby, J. E. 1988. Aridland wildlife in decline: the case of the scimitar-horned oryx. Christopher Helm, London, UK.

Citation: IUCN SSC Antelope Specialist Group 2008. Oryx dammah. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 19 April 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided