|Scientific Name:||Bufotes viridis|
|Species Authority:||(Laurenti, 1768)|
Bufo sitibundus (Pallas, 1771)
Bufo viridis Laurenti, 1768
Pseudepidalea viridis (Laurenti, 1768)
Rana picta Pallas, 1831
|Taxonomic Notes:||Further revision of taxonomy of the Bufotes viridis complex with the use of genetic and biochemical data is needed. There was disagreement over the use of the generic name Pseudepidalea in place of Bufo and now most species have been moved to Bufotes because of non-monophyly of both Bufo and Pseudepidalea.|
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Least Concern ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya, Matthias Stöck, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Theodore Papenfuss, Gad Degani, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone|
|Reviewer(s):||Cox, N.A. & Temple, H.J.|
Listed as Least Concern in view of its wide distribution, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, presumed large population, and because it is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.
|Range Description:||Following the revision of the Bufo viridis complex by Stöck et al. (2006), populations of Green Toads now allocated to Bufotes viridis are distributed through much of Europe (excluding much of Fenno-Skandia, the British Isles, almost the whole of Italy, the Iberian Peninsula and almost all of Europe west of the Rhine River) eastwards to Kazakhstan. Populations of Green Toads from the southern tip of Sweden, Denmark and northern Germany were provisionally identified as Bufotes (Bufo) variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006), however, it is possible that populations of Bufotes viridis are also within these areas. The species of Green Toad on the island of Malta is unclear, and is retained here in Bufotes viridis pending further research. Populations of Green Toad from the Eastern Mediterranean countries, and much of Central and Middle Asia are now largely allocated to Bufotes (Bufo) variabilis by Stöck et al. (2006). Populations from North Africa are now included within Bufotes boulengeri. Populations of Green Toads from the Balearic Islands (Spain), Corsica (France), Sardinia (Italy) and much of mainland Italy are now recognized as Pseudepidalea balearica. Green toad populations from Sicily, Italy, now mostly comprise the endemic Bufotes siculus, with some populations of Bufotes balearicus in the northeast of this island. The status of Green Toads in Israel, Jordan, Sinai (Egypt) and of the isolated, relict population in the southern Hadramaut in southwestern Saudi Arabia is currently unclear, and it is possible that these populations should be included within either Bufotes variabilis or Bufotes boulengeri pending further review.|
Native:Albania; Austria; Belarus; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia; Czech Republic; Estonia; France; Germany; Greece; Hungary; Italy; Kazakhstan; Latvia; Lithuania; Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of; Malta; Moldova; Montenegro; Poland; Romania; Russian Federation; Serbia (Serbia); Slovakia; Slovenia; Ukraine
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||This species is still considered a relatively abundant to common species over large parts of its range, although populations formally recognized as Bufotes viridis are rare or declining on the fringes of its range in Europe (e.g., Denmark and Sweden). It is extinct in Switzerland despite re-introduction efforts.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||This species lives in a wide range of forests, forest steppe, scrubland, grassland and alpine habitats. Animals may be present in modified areas including urban centres (e.g. Bucharest), city parks and gardens - and often benefits from disturbed habitats. Spawning and larval development occurs in a diverse range of temporary and permanent waterbodies including swamps, ponds, lakes, pools in streams and rivers, reservoirs, ditches and puddles.|
|Major Threat(s):||The main threat over much of the range (most especially in the north) appears to be the loss of breeding habitats through wetland drainage, desiccation and aquatic pollution (industrial and agricultural). Populations might be locally declining due to mortality on roads.|
|Conservation Actions:||The species is listed on Appendix II of the Bern Convention and is listed on Annex IV of the EU Natural Habitats Directive. It is protected by national legislation in many countries; it is recorded on many national and sub-national Red Data books and lists and is present in many protected areas. In parts of this species range, mitigation measures to reduce road kill have been established.|
1995. Amphibian Populations in the Commonwealth of Independent States: Current Status and Declines. Pensoft, Moscow.
1997. Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles in Europe. Societas Europea Herpetologica & Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
Anderson, S.C. 1963. Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 4 31(16): 417-498.
Andrén, C. and Nilson, G. 1979. A new species of toad (Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae) from the Kavir Desert, Iran. Journal of Herpetology: 93-100.
Arnold, E.N. 2003. Reptiles and amphibians of Europe. Princeton University Press.
Balletto, E., Cherchi, M.A. and Gasperetti, J. 1985. Amphibians of the Arabian Peninsula. Fauna of Saudi Arabia, pp. 318-392.
Bannikov, A.G., Darevsky, I.S., Ishchenko, V.G., Rustamov, A.K. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1977. Opredelitel Zemnovodnykh i Presmykayushchikhsya Fauny SSSR [Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR Fauna]. Prosvechshenie, Moscow.
Baran, I. and Atatür, M.K. 1998. Turkish herpetofauna (amphibians and reptiles). Republic of Turkey Ministry of Environment, Ankara.
Böhme, W. and Wiedl, H. 1994. Status and zoogeography of the herpetofauna of Cyprus, with taxonomic and natural history notes on selected species (genera Rana, Coluber, Natrix, Vipera). Zoology in the Middle East: 31-52.
Borkin, L.J., Rosanov, J.M. and Litvinchuk, S.N. 2000. Nuclear DNA content in some green toads (Bufo viridis complex) of Turkey and Iran. Russian Journal of Herpetology: 171-180.
Brändel, M. and Rödel, M-O. 1994. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der iberischen Herpetofauna (Amphibia; Reptilia). Herpetozoa: 19-27.
Cogălniceanu, D., Aioanei, F. and Matei, B. 2000. Amfibienii din România. Determinator. [Amphibians of Romania]. Editura Ars Docendi.
Deagni, G. and Mendelssohn, H. 1990. Plants and animals of the Land of Israel, second edition, Volume 5. The Publication House Society for Protection of Nature, Israel.
Degani, G. 1982. Amphibian tadpole interaction in a winter pond. Hydrobiologia: 3-7.
Degani, G. 1986. Growth and behavior of six species of amphibian larvae in winter ponds in Israel. Hydrobiologia: 5-10.
Degani, G. and Kaplan, D. 1999. Distribution of amphibian larvae in Israeli habitats with changeable water availability. Hydrobiologia: 49-56.
Degani, G., Silanikove, N. and Shkolnik, A. 1984. Adaptation of green toad (Bufo viridis) to terrestrial life by urea accumulation. Comp. Biochem. Physiol.: 585-587.
Dely, G. 1967. Kétéltűek-Amphibia: Magyarország Állatvilága, Faunae Hungariae. Ákadémiai Kiadó, Budapest.
Disi, A.M. 2002. Jordan Country Study on Biological Diversity: The Herpetofauna of Jordan. Amman.
Disi, A.M., Modrý, D., Nečas, P. and Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt.
Flindt, R. and Hemmer, H. 1968. Über Bufo viridis im Vorderen Orient. Senckenbergiana Biologica: 99-106.
Fog, K. 1995. Amphibian conservation in Denmark. FrogLog.
Gafny, S. 2004. Threatened amphibians of Israel. In: Dolev, A. and Perevolotsky, A. (eds), The Red book of Vertebrates in Israel, Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority and Society for Protection of Nature in Israel Press, Jerusalem.
Garanin, V.I. 2000. The distribution of amphibians in the Volga-Kama region. Advances in Amphibian Research in the former Soviet Union, pp. 79-132.
Gasith, A. 2002. Amphibian Decline in Israel - A New Research Project. FrogLog.
Grossenbacher, K. 1988. Verbreitungsatlas der Amphibien der Schweiz. Documenta faunistica helvetiae: 1-207.
Grossenbacher, K. 1994. Rote Liste der gefährdeten Amphibien der Schweiz. In: BUWAL (ed.), Rote Liste der gefährdeten Tierarten in der Schweiz, pp. 33-34. BUWAL (Bundesamt für Umwelt, Wald und Landschaft), Bern.
Grossenbacher, K. 2003. Die Wechselkröte (Bufo viridis) in der Schweiz: historische und aktuell Situation. Mertensiella: 147-152.
Hoffman, J. and Katz, U. 1994. Urea production and accumulation in the green toad Bufo viridis. Journal of Zoology: 591-603.
Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R. and Geze, R. 2001. Les Amphibiens du Liban: inventaire, répartition géographique et altitudinale. Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France: 19-28.
Hraoui-Bloquet, S., Sadek, R.A., Sindaco, R. and Venchi, A. 2002. The herpetofauna of Lebanon: new data on distribution. Zoology in the Middle East: 35-46.
Ildos, A.S. and Ancona, N. 1994. Analysis of amphibian habitat preferences in a farmland area (Po plain, northern Italy). Amphibia-Reptilia: 307-316.
IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.1. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 28 May 2015).
Kalezic, M. and Dzukic, G. 2001. Amphibian status in Serbia and Montenegro (FR Yugoslavia). FrogLog.
Kovács, T. 2002. Monitoring of amphibians and reptiles along the Drava River. FrogLog.
Kubykin, R.A. 1996. The Green Toad on islands in Lake Alakol, Southeastern Kazakhstan. Advances in Amphibian Research in the Former Soviet Union: 217-220.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1995. Die Amphibien Russlands und Angrenzender Gebiete. Westarp – Spektrum, Magdeburg - Heidelberg.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1996. Threatened amphibians in the former Soviet Union: the current situation and the main threats. Oryx: 24-30.
Kuzmin, S.L. 1999. The Amphibians of the Former Soviet Union. Pensoft, Sofia-Moscow.
Leviton, A.E., Anderson, S.C., Adler, K. and Minton, S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Oxford, Ohio.
Lymberakis, P. and Kalionzopoulou, A. 2003. Additions to the herpetofauna of Syria. Zoology in the Middle East 29: 33-39.
Minton Jr., S.A. 1966. A Contribution to the Herpetology of West Pakistan. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 134(2): 27-184.
Mlynarski, M. 1966. Plazy I Gady Polski. Panstwowe Zaklady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, Warszawa.
Noellert, A. and Noellert, C. 1992. Die Aphibien Europas. Franckh-Kosmos Verlags-GmbH & co, Stuttgart.
Özeti, N. and Yilmaz, I. 1994. Türkiye amphibileri. Ege Üniversitesi Fen Fakültesi Kitaplar Serisi: 221.
Pisanets, E.M. 1978. Sistematika i Geograficheskaya Izmenchivost Zhab Fauny SSSR [Systematics and Geographical Variability of the Toads of USSR Fauna]. PhD. Dissertation, Kiev.
Pisanets, E.M. 1991. The new dates of karyology Bufo viridis-complex (Amphibia, Bufonidae) and the questions of origin of Asiatic tetraploid toads. Herpetological Researches: 41-50.
Pisanets, E.M., Mezhzherin, S.V. and Szczerbak, N.N. 1996. Studies in hybridization and external morphology of Asian toads (Amphibia: Bufonidae), and description of the new species, Bufo shaartusiensis sp. nov. Dopovidi Natsionalnoi Akademii Nauk Ukraini: 147-151.
Puky, M. 2000. A comprehensive three-year herpetological survey in the Gemenc Region of the Danube - Dráva National Park, Hungary. Opuscula Zoologica, Budapest.: 113-128.
Puky, M. 2000. A kétéltûek védelme Magyarországon (Conservation of amphibians in Hungary). In: Faragó, S. (ed.), Gerinces állatfajok védelme (Conservation of vertebrate species), pp. 143-158. Nyugat-Magyarországi Egyetem Erdõmérnöki Kar, Sopron.
Puky, M. 2001. Herpetological methods: I. On the use of the road transect method in surveying amphibians with examples from different zoogeographical regions of Hungary. Opuscula Zoologica, Budapest: 75-81.
Puky, M. 2003. Amphibian mitigation measures in Central-Europe. In: Irwin, L.C., Garrett, P. and McDermott, K.P. (eds), Proceedings of the International Conference on Ecology and Transportation, 26-31 August, 2003, Lake Placid, New York, USA, pp. 413-429. Center for Transportation and the Environment, North Carolina State University, USA.
Puky, M. and Vogel, Z. 2000. Amphibian road kill survey in Balaton - Uplands National Park and recommendations to mitigation measures. Infra Eco network Europe (IENE) Project Report.
Puky, M. et al. 2003. Preliminary herpetological atlas of Hungary. Varangy Akciócsoport Egyesület, Budapest.
Rastegar-Pouyani, N. 2003. Conservation and systematics of amphibians of Kermanshah Province. Abstracts of the 8th Nordic Herpetological Symposium, Nordic Herpetological Society, Lund, Sweden.
Reed, C.A. and Marx, H. 1959. A herpetological collection from northeastern Iraq. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science: 91-122.
Rich, I. 1995. A field study of marked populations of the green toad, Bufo viridis. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica: 118-119.
Schneider, H. and Egiasaryan, E.M. 1995. The mating call of the green toad, Bufo viridis viridis (Anura, Amphibia), in Kazakhstan. Russian Journal of Herpetology: 1-4.
Sindaco, R., Doria, G., Razzetti, E. and Bernini, F. 2006. Atlas of Italian Amphibians and Reptiles\\Atlante Degli Anfibi E Dei Rettili D'Italia. Societas Herpetologica Italica - Edizioni Polistampa, Firenze.
Stöck, M. 1998. Mating call differences between diploid and tetraploid green toads (Bufo viridis complex) in Middle Asia. Amphibia-Reptilia: 29-42.
Stöck, M., Frynta, D., Grosse, W.-R., Steinlein, C. and Schmid, M. 2001. A review of the distribution of diploid, triploid and tetraploid Green Toads (Bufo viridis complex) in Asia including new data from Iran and Pakistan. Asiatic Herpetological Research: 77-100.
Stöck, M., Günther, R. and Böhme, W. 2001. Progress towards a taxonomic revision of the Asian Bufo viridis group: Current status of nominal taxa and unsolved problems (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae). Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden 51(18): 253-319.
Stöck, M., Moritz, C., Hickerson, M., Frynta, D., Dujsebayeva, T., Eremchenko, V., Macey, J.R., Papenfuss, T.J. and Wake, D.B. 2006. Evolution of mitochondrial relationships and biogeography of Palearctic green toads (Bufo viridis subgroup) with insights in their genomic plasticity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 663-689.
Stöck, M., Sicilia, A., Belfiore, N., Buckley, D., Lo Brutto, S., Lo Valvo, M. and Arculeo, M. 2008. Post-Messinian evolutionary relationships across the Sicilian channel: Mitochondrial and nuclear markers link a new green toad from Sicily to African relatives. BMC Evolutionary Biology 56(8): doi:10.1186/1471-2148-8-56.
Tron, F. 2005. Second Discoglossus nigriventer rediscovery expedition in the central Bekaa Valley, Lebanon: 17-28 April 2005 Expedition Report. A Rocha.
Vogrin, N. 1997. The status of amphibians in Slovenia. FrogLog.
|Citation:||Aram Agasyan, Aziz Avci, Boris Tuniyev, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailovic, Petros Lymberakis, Claes Andrén, Dan Cogalniceanu, John Wilkinson, Natalia Ananjeva, Nazan Üzüm, Nikolai Orlov, Richard Podloucky, Sako Tuniyev, U?ur Kaya, Matthias Stöck, Muhammad Sharif Khan, Sergius Kuzmin, David Tarkhnishvili, Vladimir Ishchenko, Theodore Papenfuss, Gad Degani, Ismail H. Ugurtas, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Ahmad Mohammed Mousa Disi, Steven Anderson, Trevor Beebee, Franco Andreone 2015. Bufotes viridis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 03 July 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|