Scatophagus argus

Status_ne_offStatus_dd_offStatus_lc_onStatus_nt_offStatus_vu_offStatus_en_offStatus_cr_offStatus_ew_offStatus_ex_off

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
ANIMALIA CHORDATA ACTINOPTERYGII PERCIFORMES SCATOPHAGIDAE

Scientific Name: Scatophagus argus
Species Authority: (Linnaeus, 1766)
Common Name(s):
English Spotted Scat, Spotted Butt, Butter Fish, Common Scat, Leopard Scat, Scat, Butterfish, Spotted Butterfish, Spotted Butter Fish, Spotted Scad, Argus Fish
French Pavillon Tacheté
Spanish Pingo Manchado
Synonym(s):
Chaetodon argus Linnaeus, 1766
Chaetodon atromaculatus Bennett, 1830
Chaetodon pairatalis Hamilton, 1822
Ephippus argus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Scatophagus aetatevarians De Vis, 1884
Scatophagus argus argus (Linnaeus, 1766)
Scatophagus argus ocellata Klunzinger, 1880
Scatophagus bougainvillii Cuvier, 1831
Scatophagus maculatus Gronow, 1854
Scatophagus ornatus Cuvier, 1831
Scatophagus purpurascens Cuvier, 1831
Scatophagus quadranus De Vis, 1884

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2010
Date Assessed: 2009-02-04
Assessor(s): Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team)
Reviewer(s): Carpenter, K.E., Livingstone, S. & Polidoro, B.
Contributor(s): De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P., Smith, J. & Livingston, F.
Justification:
Scatophagus argus has been assessed as Least Concern.  This species has a very large distribution, extending from the Persian Gulf to the east coast of Australia.  Although harvested for food, medicine, and the aquarium trade, it is of little commercial importance.  This species is also able to utilise a number of habitat types that undergo large scale environmental fluctuations, indicating resilience and adaptability.

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:Scatophagus argus is distributed from the Persian Gulf, past India, and into the western Pacific.  Its distribution extends from Japan in the north, to New South Wales, New Caledonia, and Fiji in the south (Randall 2005).  The FAO (2001) states that the distribution of this species also extends further east in the Pacific, to French Polynesia.  Scatophagus argus has also been recorded from Micronesia.
Countries:
Native:
Australia; Bangladesh; Cambodia; China; Fiji; French Polynesia; Hong Kong; India; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Japan; Kuwait; Malaysia; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Myanmar; New Caledonia; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Samoa; Singapore; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Thailand; Tonga; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Native:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population: There is no population information available for Scatophagus argus.
Population Trend: Unknown

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology: The scat, Scatophagus argus, is usually found in estuaries, harbours, mangrove sloughs, and the lower reaches of fresh water streams, especially those with high mineral concentrations.  Tiny juveniles float in the surface film (Kuiter and Debelius 2001).  This species feeds on benthic algae, plant matter, and small benthic invertebrates.  It is a schooling species.  Individuals typically grow to 20–30 cm.  Filipino fishers believe the dorsal, anal, and pelvis spines are venomous and capable of inflicting painful wounds.
Systems: Freshwater; Marine

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: Scatophagus argus is harvested as a food source using traps and nets.  However, it is not thought to be of commercial importance due to its small size.  It is also used in Chinese medicine and for the aquarium trade.

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Scatophagus argus is harvested as a food source using traps and nets.  However, due to its small size, it is not thought to be of commercial importance.  It is also used in Chinese medicine and for the aquarium trade.  However, due to the low commercial value of this species and its venomous spines, harvesting is not considered a major threat at present.

This species occurs in some estuarine environments that are subject to high levels of contaminants from shipping (oil and fuel leaks, ballast water, anti-fouling paints), coastal development, and pollution from upstream.  However, these are localised threats, and not known throughout its entire range.

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for Scatophagus argus.  However, it may occur in a number of marine protected areas.  Further research on the harvest levels and extent of harvest of this species is needed.

Bibliography [top]

Adams, T. and Dalzell, P. 1994. Artisanal fishing.

Ahmed, M. 1991. A model to determine benefits obtainable from the management of riverine fisheries of Bangladesh. ICLARM.

Alcala, A.C. and Cabanban, A.S. 1986. Fry and larvae of fishes and crustaceans in coastal marine waters of Negros Oriental, Negros Island, Philippines. Silliman Journal 33(1-4): 10-23.

Allen, G.R. 1984. Scatophagidae..

Allen, G.R. 1991. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of New Guinea. Christensen Research Institute, Madang, Papua New Guinea.

Allen, G.R. and Munday, P.L. 1994. Kimbe Bay rapid ecological assessment: the coral reefs of Kimbe Bay (West New Britain, Papua New Guinea): Fish diversity of Kimbe Bay. The Nature Conservancy, South Pacific program office, Auckland, New Zealand.

Allen, G.R., Midgley, S.H. and Allen, M. 2002. Field guide to the freshwater fishes of Australia. Western Australian Museum, Perth, Austalia.

Al-Mamun, A. 2003. A hand guide for identification of inland fishes of Bangladesh. WorldFish Centre-Bangladesh.

Arkhipchuk, V.V. 1999. Chromosome database. Database of Dr. Victor Arkhipchuk.

Arthur, J.R. and Lumanlan-Mayo, S. 1997. Checklist of the parasites of fishes of the Philippines. In: FAO Technical Paper (ed.). FAO, Rome, Italy.

Assadi, H. and Dehghani, R.P. 1997. Atlas of the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman fishes. Iranian fisheries Research Organization, Terhan, Iran.

Barry, T.P., Castaños, M.T. and Fast, A.W. 1991. Induced spermiation in the male spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) by long-term administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone followed by LHRHa. Asian Fisheries Science 4: 137-145.

Basmayor, L.O., Dioneda, R.D. and Soliman, V.S. 1997. The fishes and invertebrates of San Miguel Bay. In: V.S. Soliman and R.D. Dioneda (eds), Capture fisheries assessment of San Miguel Bay, post-resource and ecological assessment of San Miguel Bay, Philippines. Volume 1. SMB Post-REA Technical Report 1: 60. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Fisheries Sector Program and Bicol University College of Fisheries.

Bassleer, G. 1997. Color guide of tropical fish diseases: on freshwater fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeerbeek.

Bassleer, G. 2003. The new ilustrated guide to fish diseases in ornamental tropical and pond fish. Bassleer Biofish, Westmeer.

Baxter, J. 1960. A study of the yellowtail Seriola dorsalis (Gill). Scripps Institution of Oceanography Library. Fish Bulletin 110: 1-91.

Bleher, H. 1996. Bombon. Aqua geographia 12(4): 6-34.

Bright, G.R. and June, J.A. 1981. Freshwater fishes of Palau, Caroline Islands. Micronesica 17: 107-111.

Calumpong, H.P., Raymundo, L.J. and Solis-Duran, E.P. 1994. Resource and ecological assessment of Sogod Bay, Leyte, Philippines. Final Report Volume 1. Fisheries Assessment. Siliman University Marine Laboratory.

Calumpong, H.P., Raymundo, L.J., Solis-Duran, E.P. and de Leon, R.O. 1993. Resource and ecological assessment of Carigara Bay, Leyte, Philippines - Final Report Vol.2. Fisheries resources and exploitation. Siliman University Marine Laboratory.

Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen.

Chen, C.H. 2004. Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. Fisheries Research Institute Special Publication, Taiwan.

Choudhury, R.C., Prasad, R. and Das, C.C. 1979. Chromosomes of six species of marine fishes. Caryologia 32(1): 15-21.

Cinco, E.A. 1996. Resource and Ecological Assessment of Sorsogon Bay, Philippines Vol. 3. Capture fisheries assessment. Fisheries Sector Program Department of Agriculture-Asian Development Bank, United Business Technologies, Inc., Pasig Philippines.

Cinco, E.A., Diaz, J.C., Sia, Q.P.III and Silvestre, G.T. 1994. A checklist of fishes caught in San Miguel Bay, Philippines. In: G. Silvestre, C. Luna and J. Padilla (eds), Multidisciplinary assessment of the fisheries in San Miguel Bay, Philippines (1992-1993). ICLARM Technical Report 47, International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management (ICLARM), Makati, Philippines.

Cinco, E. and Diaz Jr., J. 1994. Length-weight relationship of fishes caught in San Miguel Bay, Philippines. In: G. Silvestre, C. Luna and J. Padilla (eds).

Conlu, P.V. 1986. Guide to Philippine flora and fauna. Fishes. Natural Resources Management Center, Quezon City, Philippines.

Dahanukar, N., Raut, R. and Bhat, A. 2004. Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India. Journal of Biogeography 31: 123-136.

Dalzell, P. and Ganaden, R.A. 1987. A review of the fisheries for small pelagic fishes in Philippine waters. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources.

David, G. 1985. Pêche de subsistance et milieu naturel: les mangrove de Vanuatu et leur intérêt halieutique. Notes et documents d'océanographie. Institut français de recherche scientifique pour le développement en cooperation, Mission ORSTOM de Port-Vila.

De Bruin, G.H.P., Russell, B.C. and Bogusch, A. 1995. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Dela Paz, R. and Aragones, N. 1985. Mangrove fishes of Pagbilao (Quezon Province, Luzon Island), with notes on their abundance and seasonality. Natural and Applied Science Bulletin 37(2): 171-190.

De la Paz, R.M., Aragones, N. and Agulto, D. 1988. Coral-reef fishes off western Calatagan, Batangas (Luzon Island, Philippines) with notes on new and rare captures and controversial taxa. Philippinnes Journal Science 117: 237-318.

Department of Fisheries, Cambodia. 2050. Commercial marine fishes of Cambodia. The Department of Fisheries, Phnom Penh.

Doiphode, P.V. 1985. Local and scientific names of fishes of Goa. Seafood Export Journal 17(3): 35-40.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 2001. Catalog of fishes. Available at: http://research.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/fishcatsearch.asp. (Accessed: December 2001).

FiCen. 2050. Common freshwater fishes of Vietnam. Fisheries Information Center of Vietnam.

Fish Team of the Trang Project. 2002. Illustrated fish fauna of a mangrove estuary at Sikao, southwestern Thailand. Trang Project for Biodiversity and Ecological Significance of Mangrove Estuaries in Southeast Asia, Rajamangala.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2001. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Bony fishes part 4 (Labridae to Latimeriidae), estuarine crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes and marine mammals. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at: www.fishbase.org.

Ganaden, S.R. and Lavapie-Gonzales, F. 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines.

Gopalakrishnan, A. and A.G. Ponniah. 2000. Cultivable, ornamental, sport and food fishes endemic to Peninsular India with special reference to Western Ghats..

Hardy Jr., J.D. 2003. Coral reef fish species. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Oceanographic Data Center.

Haudricourt, A.-G. and Ozanne-Rivierre, F. 1999. Dictionnaire thématique des langues de la région de Hienghène (Nouvelle-Calédonie). SELAF, Paris.

Heemstra, P.C. 2001. Ephippidae. Spadefishes (batfishes)..

Hermes, R. 1993. Species composition of small-scale fish landings in Lae, Papua New Guinea. Naga, ICLARM Q 16(2 and 3): 38.

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1935. Philippine fish tales. D.P. Perez Company, Manila.

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1953. Check list of Philippine fishes. Research Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S Department of the Interior, USA.

Herre, A.W.C.T. and Umali, A.F. 1948. English and local common names of Philippine fishes. U.S. Department of Interior and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USA.

Hinegardner, R. and Rosen, D.E. 1972. Cellular DNA content and the evolution of teleostean fishes. American Naturalist 106(951): 621-644.

Hla Win, U. 1987. Checklist of fishes of Burma. Department of Fisheries, Ministry of Livestock Breeding and Fisheries, Burma.

Houde, E.D. 1984. Ontogeny and systematics of fishes. Based on an international symposium dedicated to the memory of Elbert Halvor Ahlstrom, 15-18 August 1983, La Jolla, California. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

Huang, Z. 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, USA.

Hureau, J.C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. In: J. Allardi and P. Keith (eds), Atlas preliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France, pp. 225-227. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

Ingles, J. and Pauly, D. 1984. An atlas of the growth, mortality and recruitment of Philippines fishes. ICLARM.

Iranian Fisheries Company and Iranian Fisheries Research Organization. 2000. Persian Gulf and Oman sea fishes.

IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).

Jeyaseelan, M.J.P. 1998. Manual of fish eggs and larvae from Asian mangrove waters. United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems (ISME).

Kailola, P.J. 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin No. 41. Research Section, Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Kapoor, D., Dayal, R. and Ponniah, A.G. 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India.

Kharbhari, J.P. 1982. Marine Fisheries Information Services India. Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute.

Khoa, T.T. and Huong, T.T.T. 1993. Dinh Loai Cá Nuóc Ngot Vùng Dông Bang Sông Cuu Long. Khoa Thuy San Truong Dai Hoc Can Tho.

Khuda-Bukhsh, A.R. and G. K. Manna. 1974. Somatic chromosomes in seven species of Barilius (Cyprinidae:Pisces)..

Klinkhardt, M., Tesche, M. and Greven, H. 1995. Database of fish chromosomes. Westarp Wissenschaften, Magdeburg.

Kottelat, M. 1993. Technical report on the fishes from fresh and brackish waters of Leyte, Philippines. Technical Report prepared for the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbH and ViSCA-GTZ Ecology Program. Visayan State College of Agriculture, Philippines.

Kottelat, M. 2000. Scatophagidae (scats). In: J.E. Randall and K.K.P. Lim (eds), A Checklist of the Fishes of the South China Sea, pp. 641. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Singapore.

Kottelat, M. 2001. Scatophagidae. Scats..

Kottelat, M., Whitten, A.J., Kartikasari, S.N. and Wirjoatmodjo, S. 1993. Freshwater fishes of Western Indonesia and Sulawesi. Periplus Editions, Hong Kong.

Kuiter, R.H. and Debelius, H. 2001. Surgeonfishes, Rabbitfishes and their relatives. A comprehensive guide to Acanthuroidei. TMC Publishing, Chorley, UK.

Kuiter, R.H. and Tonozuka, T. 2001. Pictorial guide to Indonesian reef fishes. Part 3. Jawfishes - Sunfishes, Opistognathidae - Molidae. Zoonetics, Australia.

Kulbicki, M., Guillemot, N. and Amand, M. 2005. A general approach to length-weight relationships for New Caledonian lagoon fishes. Cybium 29(3): 235-252.

Kulbicki, M., Mou Tham, G., Thollot, P. and Wantiez, L. 1993. Length-weight relationships of fish from the lagoon of New Caledonia. Naga ICLARM Quarterly 16(2-3): 26-29.

Kuo, S.R. and Shao, K.T. 1999. Species composition of fish in the coastal zones of the Tsengwen Estuary, with descriptions of five new records from Taiwan. Zoological Studies 38(4): 391-404.

Kuo, S.-R., Lin, H.-J. and Shao, K.-T. 1999. Fish assemblages in the mangrove creeks of northern and southern Taiwan. Estuaries 22(4): 1004-1015.

Letourneur, Y., Kulbicki, M. and Labrosse, P. 1998. Length-weight relationships of fish from coral reefs and lagoons of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean: an update. Naga ICLARM Quarterly 21(4): 39-46.

Lewis, A.D. and Pring, C.K. 1986. Freshwater and brackishwater fish and fisheries of Fiji. In: T. Petr (ed.), Reports and papers presented at the Indo-Pacific Fishery Commission Expert Consultation on inland fisheries of the larger Indo-Pacific islands. Food and Agricultural Organization, Bangkok.

Liao, C.-I., Su, H.-M. and Chang, E.Y. 2001. Techniques in finfish larviculture in Taiwan. Aquaculture 200: 1-31.

Lieske, E. and Myers, R. 1994. Collins Pocket Guide. Coral reef fishes. Indo-Pacific and Caribbean including the Red Sea. Harper Collins Publishers.

Manna, G.K. 1984. Progress in fish cytogenetics. Nucleus 27: 203-231.

Manna, G.K. 1989. Fish cytogenetics related to taxonomy, evolution and monitoring aquatic genotoxic agents. In: P. Das and A.G. Jingran (eds), Proceedings of the Symposium on Conservation and Management of Fish Genetic Resources of India, pp. 21-46. Today and Tomorrow Printers and Publishers.

Manna, G.K. and Khuda Bukhsh, A.R. 1974. Somatic chromosomes in seven species of teleostean fishes. CIS 17(5-6).

Man, S.H. and Hodgkiss, I.J. 1981. Hong Kong freshwater fishes. Urban Council, Wishing Printing Company, Hong Kong.

Marquet, G., Séret, B. and Lecomte-Finiger, R. 1997. Inventaires comparés des poissons des eaux intérieures de trois îles océaniques tropicales de l'Indo-Pacifique (la Réunion, la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Tahiti). Cybium 21(1): 27-34.

Masuda, H., Amaoka, K., Araga, C., Uyeno, T. and Yoshino, T. 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

Mills, D. and Vevers, G. 1989. The Tetra encyclopedia of freshwater tropical aquarium fishes. Tetra Press, New Jersey.

Mindanao State University at Naawan. 1995. Rapid resource appraisal of Davao Gulf. Mindanao State University at Naawan Foundation for Science and Techology Development.

Mohsin, A.K.M., Ambak, M.A. and Salam, M.M.A. 1993. Malay, English, and scientific names of the fishes of Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan.

Mohsin, A.K.M. and Ambak, M.A. 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malaysian.

Monkolprasit, S. 1994. Fish composition and food habits in mangrove forests at Phang-Nga Bay and Ban Don Bay, Thailand. Kasetsart University Fisheries Research Bulletin 20: 21.

Morton, B. 1979. The coastal seafood of Hong Kong. In: B.S. Morton (ed.), The future of the Hong Kong seashore, pp. 125-150. Oxford University Press, Hong Kong.

Munz, F.W. and McFarland, W.N. 1973. The significance of spectral position in the rhodopsins of tropical marine fishes. Vision Research 13: 1829-1874.

Myers, R.F. 1991. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.

Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.

NBFGR. 1998. Fish chromosome atlas. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Special Publication.

Nigrelli, R.F. 1959. Longevity of fishes in captivity, with special reference to those kept in the New York Aquarium. In: G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen and M. O' Conner (eds), Ciba Foundation Symposium - The Lifespan of Animals (Colloquia on Ageing, Vol. 5), pp. 212-230.

Ni, I.H. and Kwok, K.Y. 1999. Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zoological Studies 38(2): 130-152.

Parenti, P. 2004. Family Scatophagidae Bleeker 1876 scats. California Academy of Science.

Pauly, D. 1982. The fishes and their ecology. In: D. Pauly and A.N. Mines (eds), Small-scale fisheries of San Miguel Bay, Philadelphia : biology and stock assessment, pp. 15-33. Tokyo, Japan.

Pauly, D., M. Small, R. Vore and M.L. Palomares. 1990. Fisheries yields and morphoedaphic index of Lake Mainit, Philippines..

Pethiyagoda, R. 1991. Freshwater fishes of Sri Lanka. The Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka, Colombo.

Rahman, A.K.A. 1989. Freshwater fishes of Bangladesh. Zoological Society of Bangladesh.

Rainboth, W.J. 1996. Fishes of the Cambodian Mekong. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Randall, J.E. 1995. Coastal fishes of Oman. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Randall, J.E. 1997. Randall's tank photos. Unpublished.

Randall, J.E. 2005. Reef and Shore Fishes of the South Pacific. New Caledonia to Tahiti and the Pitcairn Islands. University of Hawaii Press, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Randall, J.E., Williams, J.T., Smith, D.G., Kulbicki, M., Tham, G.M., Labrosse, P., Kronen, M., Clua, E. and Mann, B.S. 2003. Checklist of the shore and epipelagic fishes of Tonga. Atoll Research Bulletin 502: 1-37.

Resource Combines and Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation. 2001. Resource and ecological assessment of Tayabas Bay - Final Report Vol.2 Ecological assessment. Fisheries Sector Program, Department of Agriculture, Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation, Quezon, Philippines.

Riede, K. 2004. Global register of migratory species - from global to regional scales. Final Report of the Research and Development-Projekt. Bonn, Germany Available at: http://www.groms.de/. (Accessed: 08 October).

Riehl, R. and Baensch, H.A. 1996. Aquarien Atlas, Band 1. Mergus Verlag GmBH, Melle.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication.

Schuster, W.H. and Djajadiredja, R. 1952. Local common names of Indonesian fishes. W.V. Hoeve, Bandung, Indonesia.

Seafood Services Australia. 2004. Australian fish names list. Available at: http://www.seafoodservices.com.au/.

Séret, B. 1997. Les poissons d'eau douce de Nouvelle-Calédonie: impications biogéographiques de récentes découvertes. Mémoires du Muséum national d'histoire naturelle 171(1/4): 369-378.

Shao, K.-T. and Lim, P.L. 1991. Fishes of freshwater and estuary. Encyclopedia of field guide in Taiwan. Recreation Press, Co., Ltd, Taipei, Taiwan.

Shao, K.-T., Shen, S.-C., Chiu, T.-S and Tzeng, C.-S. 1992. Distribution and database of fishes in Taiwan. Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica, Taipei.

Sokolovskaya, T.G., Sokolovskii, A.S. and Sobolevskii, E.I. 1998. A list of fishes of Peter the Great Bay (the Sea of Japan). Journal of Ichthyology 38(1): 1-11.

South Pacific Regional Environment Programme. 1985. Traditional tuna fishing in Tokelau. South Pacific Commission, Noumea.

Suzuki, A., Takeda, M., Tanaka, H. and Yoo, M.S. 1988. Chromosomes of Scatophagus argus and Selenotoca multifasciata (Scatophagidae). Japanese Journal of Ichthyology 35(1): 102-104.

Swedish Museum of Natural History. 1999. NRM Ichthyology collection database. Ichthyology Section, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Swedish Museum of Natural History.

Taki, Y. 1978. An analytical study of the fish fauna of the Mekong basin as a biological production system in nature. Research Institute of Evolutionary Biology.

Talwar, P.K. and Jhingran, A.G. 1991. Inland fishes of India and adjacent countries. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Talwar, P.K. and Kacker, R.K. 1984. Commercial sea fishes of India. Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India.

Tang, W.-C. 1987. Chinese medicinal materials from the sea. Abstracts of Chinese Medicine 1(4): 571-600.

Thollot, P. 1996. Les poissons de mangrove du lagon sud-ouest de Nouvelle-Calédonie. ORSTOM Éditions, Paris, France.

Tirant, G. 1929. Oeuvre ichtyologique de G. Tirant. Réimpression par le Service Océanographique des pêches.

University of the Philippines at Los Baños Foundation. 1995. Resource and ecological assessment of Ragay Gulf. Summary tables and figures. Volume 3. University of the Philippines at Los Baños Foundation.

U.P. Visayas Foundation, Inc. 1994. Resource and ecological assessment of Ormoc Bay Vol.4 Coastal marine communities of Ormoc Bay. Institute of Marine Fisheries and Oceanology Burea.

Varjo, M., Koli, L. and Dahlström, H. 2004. Kalannimiluettelo. Suomen Biologian Seura Vanamo Ry.

Vasil'ev, V.P. 1980. Chromosome numbers in fish-like vertebrates and fish. Journal of Ichthyology 20(3): 1-38.

Weber, M. and de Beaufort, L.F. 1936. The fishes of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. VII. Perciformes (continued). E.J. Brill, Leiden 7: 1-607.

Werner, T.B. and Allen, G.R. 1998. Reef fishes of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. In: T.B. Werner and G.R. Allen (eds), A Rapid Marine Biodiversity Assessment of Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea--Survey II (2000). Conservation International, Washington, USA.

Wheeler, A. 1977. Das grosse Buch der Fische. Eugen Ulmer GmbH and Co., Stuttgart, Germany.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Ziegler, B. 1979. Growth and mortality rates of some fishes of Manila bay Philippines as estimated from the analysis of length frequencies. Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät.


Citation: Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M. (Sampled Red List Index Coordinating Team) 2010. Scatophagus argus. In: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2014.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 26 October 2014.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please fill in the feedback form so that we can correct or extend the information provided