Etelis carbunculus 

Scope: Global
Language: English

Translate page into:

Taxonomy [top]

Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family
Animalia Chordata Actinopterygii Perciformes Lutjanidae

Scientific Name: Etelis carbunculus Cuvier, 1828
Common Name(s):
English Ruby Snapper, Deepwater Red Snapper, Deepwater Snapper, Jobfish, Queen Snapper, Red Snapper, Ruby-colored Snapper Fish, Snapper, Squirrelfish Snapper
French Perche Rouget, Vivaneau Rouge, Vivaneau Rubis
Spanish Cachudo, Pargo Rubí, Salmonete de lo Alto
Etelis marshi (Jenkins, 1903)
Eteliscus marshi Jenkins, 1903

Assessment Information [top]

Red List Category & Criteria: Least Concern ver 3.1
Year Published: 2016
Date Assessed: 2015-03-04
Assessor(s): Russell, B., Carpenter, K.E., Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Lawrence, A.
Reviewer(s): Harvey, M.
Contributor(s): Newman, S., Fry, G. & Myers, R.
Facilitator/Compiler(s): Ralph, G.
Etelis carbunculus is a widely distributed, deep-water species found throughout the Indo-West Pacific. It can be locally abundant, and is an important food fish throughout parts of its range. Although there is evidence of some localized declines and extirpations as a result of heavy fishing pressure (e.g., off Hawaii), there have not been observed or suspected population declines in most parts of its range due to exploitation events, and additional, quantitative data are lacking. This species is widely distributed in the West Pacific around isolated oceanic islands where it is subject to low fishing pressure and it is assumed that in these areas it is still locally abundant. For this reason, this species is assessed as Least Concern. Monitoring of the population trends and harvest levels of this species in areas where it is heavily fished is recommended.
Previously published Red List assessments:

Geographic Range [top]

Range Description:The Ruby Snapper, Etelis carbunculus, is found throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is known from the coast of East Africa to the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, across the Indo-Pacific, north to Japan and south to Australia. In the Pacific, its range extends to Hawaii, including French Polynesia (Anderson and Allen 2001). It has also been recorded from Three King's Island in northern New Zealand (Francis et al. 1999) and out to both Christmas and Cocos Islands (S. Newman pers. comm. 2010). This species is found in depths ranging from 90 to 400 m (Anderson and Allen 2001).
Countries occurrence:
American Samoa; Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; British Indian Ocean Territory; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; Cook Islands; Disputed Territory (Paracel Is., Spratly Is.); Djibouti; Egypt; Eritrea; Fiji; French Polynesia; French Southern Territories (Mozambique Channel Is.); Guam; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati (Gilbert Is., Kiribati Line Is., Phoenix Is.); Kuwait; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Mayotte; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands (Howland-Baker Is., Johnston I., Midway Is., US Line Is.); Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
FAO Marine Fishing Areas:
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central; Pacific – northwest
Additional data:
Lower depth limit (metres):400
Upper depth limit (metres):90
Range Map:Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.

Population [top]

Population:Population data are limited for this species. There are 95 occurrences on record, globally, with each lot containing between 1 and 3 individuals (Accessed through the Fishnet2 Portal,, 2015-11-02).
In Hawaii, Misa et al. (2013) found that in deep-water, rocky habitat, this species is relatively abundant.
Current Population Trend:Unknown
Additional data:
Population severely fragmented:No

Habitat and Ecology [top]

Habitat and Ecology:This species inhabits rock and rocky reefs near the benthos on the continental shelf, and feeds on fishes and large invertebrates such as squids, shrimps and crabs. It also feeds on planktonic organisms (Haight et al. 1993). This demersal species is known from a depth range of 90 to 400 m and is known to occur in aggregations (Anderson and Allen 2001). At Vanuatu (New Hebrides), spawning occurs throughout much of the year, with a peak in activity around November (Allen 1985). In Papua New Guinea, this species was found to be fully mature at 61 cm (Lokani et al. 1990), but in Hawaii, this species is reportedly mature at a length of 30 cm (Misa et al. 2013). The maximum fork length measured for this species is 127 cm (Smith and Kostlan 1991).
Congregatory:Congregatory (and dispersive)

Use and Trade [top]

Use and Trade: This species is harvested as food throughout the majority of its range and is an important food fish in some areas (Allen 1985). In Kimbe, Manus and Oro bay, Rabaul CPUE efforts in the late nineties were 0.57 to 1.41 kg/line hr (Chapman 1998) and 0.001-0.31 kg/line hr, respectively (Wellington and Cusack 1998).It is thought that the Australian and the Hawaiian parts of its range are heavily fished. This species is also commercially fished in the Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery (WDWTF) in south-western Australia. This species has been intensely fished in this area and due to its aggregating behavior and preference for restricted continental shelf habitats, it is vulnerable to heavy fishing. As a result it is reported to be over-fished in this area and the catch rates of this species are thought to have fallen (Hunter 2008).

Threats [top]

Major Threat(s): Etelis carbunculus is an important food fish in some areas (Allen 1985). It is mainly caught with bottom longlines and deep handlines, and is marketed fresh or frozen (Anderson and Allen 2001). It is one of the principal species in the Hawaiian offshore handline fishery. There are indications that some fish stocks on Hawaiian banks have been severely over-fished (Haight et al. 1993). Misa et al. (2013) found that E. carbunculus had an estimated spawning potential ratio well below 20%, indicating that the stock is in a state of recruitment overfishing. Fishery reports for the Hawaiian Islands indicate that the catch rates of E. carbunculus have declined steadily since the 1950s, and have dropped more steeply in the last 10 to 15 years. As the catch rates have dropped, so have the proportion of mature fish in the catches (DAR 2002). The Hawaiian landings of this species have dropped from approximately 18,100 kg in 1998 to 10,900 kg in 2003. Moffitt (1980) noted that the CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort) was 0.06 to 0.08 kg/line hr in the North West Hawaiian Islands in 1980. Over the last 40 to 50 years, partial CPUE  has been reduced to half of what it once was (Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2006). This species is considered locally depleted in the middle Hawaiian Islands, whilst all bottomfish populations are considered relatively healthy in the North Western Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2006).
This species is also commercially fished in the Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery (WDWTF) in south-western Australia. This species has been intensely fished in this area and due to its aggregatory behaviour with preference for restricted continental shelf habitats, it is vulnerable to heavy fishing. As a result it is reported to be over-fished in this area and the catch rates of this species are thought to have fallen (Hunter 2008).

Conservation Actions [top]

Conservation Actions: There are no species-specific conservation measures for Etelis carbunculus; however, the distribution of this species intersects within numerous marine protected areas (IUCN and UNEP 2014).
Monitoring of the harvest levels is needed with further research on the extent of the fishery. Conservation measures need to protect important spawning aggregations.

In federal waters of the US Western Pacific, the Western Pacific Regional Fishery Management Council manages the Deep 7 bottomfish species. Previously these species were managed under the Bottomfish and Seamount Groundfish Fishery Management Plan, but since 2010 have been managed under the Hawaii Fishery Ecosystem Plan (WPRFMC 2009) (WPFMC 2010). Management measures under the federal plan include a ban on destructive fishing techniques, a prohibition on fishing at Hancock Seamount, size limits, limits on fishing effort, gear restrictions, a recreational bag limit, and catch reporting (WPRFMC 2010). As well, a total allowable catch limit is set for the Deep 7 bottomfish species. For the 2012-13 and 2013-14 fishing years, the annual catch limit was set at 346,000 lbs. (FR 2013). If the catch limits is project to be reached, the fishery for the Deep 7 bottomfish may be closed. If the catch limit is exceeded, the catch limit for the following season may be reduced by the amount of the overage.  In state waters the Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources (HDAR) part of the Department of Land and Natural Resources, is responsible for fisheries management. Management measures in state waters include annual vessel registration, catch reporting, gear restrictions, minimum sizes (Onaga and Opakapaka) and closed fishing areas (DLNR 2013). If the fishery for the Deep 7 is closed in federal waters because the annual catch limit is reached, the State may close their waters to fishing for the Deep 7 species as well. Management goals for abundance and fishing levels have been established for the Deep 7 complex as a whole but not for individual species (Brodziak et al. 2014). As a result, the impact of the fishery on individual species remains unclear (Blue Ocean Institute 2014).

Classifications [top]

9. Marine Neritic -> 9.2. Marine Neritic - Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs
11. Marine Deep Benthic -> 11.1. Marine Deep Benthic - Continental Slope/Bathyl Zone (200-4,000m) -> 11.1.1. Hard Substrate
1. Land/water protection -> 1.1. Site/area protection

In-Place Research, Monitoring and Planning
In-Place Land/Water Protection and Management
  Occur in at least one PA:Yes
In-Place Species Management
  Harvest management plan:Yes
In-Place Education
5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.1. Intentional use: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

5. Biological resource use -> 5.4. Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources -> 5.4.2. Intentional use: (large scale) [harvest]
♦ timing:Ongoing    
→ Stresses
  • 2. Species Stresses -> 2.1. Species mortality

3. Monitoring -> 3.1. Population trends

Bibliography [top]

Allen, G.R. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Allen, G.R. 2000. Lutjanidae (snappers). In: J.E. Randall and K.K.P. Lim (eds), A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Supplement 8: 569-667, pp. 617-618. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Singapore.

Allen, G.R. and Talbot, J.H. 1985. Review of the snappers of the genus Lutjanus (Pisces Lutjanidae) from the Indo-Pacific with the description of a new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 11: 87.

Anderson, W.D. and Allen, G.R. 2001. Lutjanidae. Jobfishes. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.

Bagnis, R., Mazellier, P., Bennett, J. and Christian, E. 1972. Fishes of Polynesia. Les Editions du Pacifique, Tahiti.

Bagnis, R., Mazellier, P., Bennett, J. and Christian, E. 1984. Poissons de Polynésie. Société Nouvelle des Editions du Pacifique, Elysée.

Bianchi, G. 1985. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Blue Ocean Institute. 2014. Main Hawaiian Islands Deep 7 Bottomfish Multi-species Complex. Hawaii Handline . Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch.

Borets, L.A. 1986. Ichthyofauna of the northwestern and Hawaiian submarine ranges. Journal of Ichthyology 26(3): 1-13.

Bouhlel, M. 1988. Poissons de Djibouti. Dubai Printing Press, Dubai.

Brodziak, J., Yau, A., O'Malley, J., Andrews, A., Humphreys, R., DeMartini, E., Pan, M., Parke, M., and Fletcher, E. 2014. Stock Assessment Update for the Main Hawaiian Islands Deep7 Bottomfish Complex through 2013 with Projected Annual Catch Limits through 2016 . NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS‐PIFSC‐43. U.S. Department of Commerce.

Brouard, F. and Grandperrin, R. 1984. Les poissons profonds de la pente récifale externe à Vanuatu. Notes Doc. Océanographie, Port-Villa.

Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung. 2003. Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Available at: (Accessed: 17 June 2003).

Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen.

Carlot, A.H. 1990. Growth and mortality of snapper Etelis carbunculus in Vanuatu. Fishbyte 8(3): 6-7.

Chapman, L. 1998. Report on third visit to Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Report No. 20. South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Chapman, L.B. and Cusack, P. 1990. South Pacific Commission Deep Sea Fisheries Development Project Report on Second Visit to Tuvalu 30 August - 7 December 1983. South Pacific Commission, Noumea.

Chen, C.H. 2004. Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. Fisheries Research Institute Special Publication, Taiwan.

Coppola, S.R., Fischer, W., Garibaldi, L., Scialabba, N. and Carpenter, K.E. 1994. SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. Rome, Italy: Electronic database (Fisheries) Available at:

Cornic, A. 1987. Poissons de l'Ile Maurice. Editions de l'Océan Indien. Stanley Rose Hill, Ile Maurice.

Cuvier, M.B. and Valenciennes, M.A. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome 2. Chez F.G. Levrault, Paris, France.

Dalzell, P., Lindsay, S.R. and Patiale. H. 1991. Fisheries resources survey of the Island of Niue. Technical Document Inshore Fisheries Research Project South Pacfic.

DAR. 2002. Bottomfish. Available at:

De Bruin, G.H.P., Russell, B.C. and Bogusch, A. 1995. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Demartini, E. E. and Lau, B.B. 1999. Morphometric criteria for estimating sexual maturity in two snappers, Etelis carbunculus and Pristipomoides sieboldii. Fishery Bulletin 9(3): 449-458.

DLNR. 2013. Bottom fishing. Hawaii Division of Aquatic Resources.

Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.

Federal Register (FR). 2013. Main Hawaiian Islands deep 7 bottomfish annual catch limits and accountability measures for 2013-14.

Fischer, W., Sousa, I., Silva, C., de Freitas, A., Poutiers, J.M., Schneider, W., Borges, T.C., Feral, J.P. and Massinga, A. 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

FishNet2 Portal. 2015. FishNet2 Portal. Available at:

Foale, S. 1998. What's in a name? An analysis of the West Nggela (Solomon Islands) fish taxonomy. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 9: 2-19.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2001. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome, Italy.

Fouda, M.M. and Hermosa Jr., G.V. 1993. A checklist of Oman fishes. Sultan Qaboos University Press, Sultanate of Oman.

Francis, M. P., Worthington, C. J., Saul, P., and K. D. Clements. 1999. New and rare tropical and subtropical fishes from northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33(571-586).

Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at:

Ganaden, S.R. and Lavapie-Gonzales, F. 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines.

Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. and Kailola, P.J. 1984. Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Canberra, Australia.

Haight, W. R., Parrish, J. D. and Hayes, T.A. 1993. Feeding Ecology of Deepwater Lutjanid Snappers at Penguin Bank, Hawaii. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122: 328-347.

Hardy Jr., J.D. 2003. Coral reef fish species. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Oceanographic Data Center.

Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. 2006. Bottom Fishes. Available at:

Herre, A.W.C.T. 1953. Check list of Philippine fishes. Research Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S Department of the Interior, USA.

Honebrink, R. 1990. Fishing in Hawaii: a student manual. Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu.

Huang, Z. 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, USA.

Humphreys, R.L.Jr., Tagami, D.T. and Seki, M.P. 1984. Seamount fishery resources within the southern Emperor-Northern Hawaiian Ridge. Proceedings 2nd Symposium. Resource Investigations.

Hunter, C. 2008. Stock assessment of ruby snapper (Etelis carbunculus). CSIRO.

Hureau, J.C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. In: J. Allardi and P. Keith (eds), Atlas preliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France, pp. 225-227. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.

IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: (Accessed: 07 December 2016).

IUCN and UNEP. 2014. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). Cambridge, UK. Available at: .

Japan International Cooperation Agency. 1987. The fisheries resources survey in Fiji and Tuvalu. Figures and tables. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo.

Kailola, P.J. 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. I Myxinidae to Synbranchidae. Research Bulletin No. 41. Research Section, Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Kapoor, D., Dayal, R. and Ponniah, A.G. 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India.

Kinch, J. 1999. Economics and environment in island Melanesia: a general overview of resource use and livelihoods on Brooker Island in the Calvados chain of the Louisiade Archipelago, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. A report prepared for Conservation International. Conservation International, Port Moresby, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea.

Kulbicki, M., Randall, J.E. and Rivaton, J. 1994. Checklist of the fishes of the Chesterfield Islands (Coral Sea). Micronesica 27(1/2): 1-43.

Kyushin, K., Amaoka, K., Nakaya, K., Ida, H., Tanino, Y. and Senta, T. 1982. Fishes of the South China Sea. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Nori Otsuru, Tokyo, Japan.

Langi, V.A. and Langi, S.A. 1987. A stock assessment programme on the bottom fishes of the seamounts, Kingdom of Tonga: the first 9 months. Fishbyte 5(3): 6-11.

Letourneur, Y., Chabanet, P., Durville, P., Taquet, M., Teissier, E., Parmentier, M., Quéro, J.-C. and Pothin, K. 2004. An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean. Cybium 28(3): 199-216.

Lokani, P., Pitiale,H., Richards, A. and Tiroba, G. 1990. Estimation of the unexploited biomass and maximum sustainable yield for the deep reef demersal fishes in Papua New Guinea.

Masuda, H., Amaoka, K., Araga, C., Uyeno, T. and Yoshino, T. 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.

McCormack, G. 2000. Cook Islands biodiversity and natural heritage database. Available at:

Mead, P. 1980. Report on the Second Visit of the South Pacific commission Deep Sea Fisheries Development Project to NIUE. South Pacific Commission, New Caledonia.

Mindanao State University at Naawan. 1995. Rapid resource appraisal of Davao Gulf. Mindanao State University at Naawan Foundation for Science and Techology Development.

Misa, W., Drazen, J., Kelley, C. and Moriwake, V. 2013. Establishing species–habitat associations for 4 eteline snappers with the use of a baited stereo-video camera system. Fisheries Bulletin 111: 293-303.

Moffit, R.B. 1980. A preliminary report on bottomfishing in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: R. Griggs and P.T. Pfund (eds), Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii., pp. 216-225. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.

Mohsin, A.K.M., Ambak, M.A. and Salam, M.M.A. 1993. Malay, English, and scientific names of the fishes of Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan.

Mohsin, A.K.M. and Ambak, M.A. 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malaysian.

Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.

Nelson, J.S. 1984. Fishes of the world. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.

Ni, I.H. and Kwok, K.Y. 1999. Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zoological Studies 38(2): 130-152.

Opic, P., Conand, F. and Bourret, P. 1994. Poissons commerciaux du sud-ouest de l'océan Indien. ORSTOM Édition.

Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39(2): 175-192.

Ralston, S. 1987. Mortality rates of snappers and groupers. In: J.J. Polovina and S. Ralston (eds), Tropical snappers and groupers: biology and fisheries management, pp. 375-404. RSMAS.

Ralston, S. 1988. Length-weight regressions and condition indices of lutjanids and other deep slope fishes from the Mariana Archipelago. Micronesica 21: 189-197.

Ralston, S. and Williams, H.A. 1988. Depth distributions, growth, and mortality of deep slope fishes from the Mariana Archipelago. NOAII Technical Memo.

Randall, J.E. 1973. Tahitian fish names and a preliminary checklist of the fishes of the society of islands. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 24(11): 167-214.

Randall, J.E. 1997. Randall's tank photos. Unpublished.

Randall, J.E. and Anderson, R.C. 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldives Islands. Ichthyology Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 59: 1-47.

Randall, J.E., Ida, H., Kato, K., Pyle, R.L. and Earle, J.L. 1997. Annotated checklist of inshore fishes of the Ogasawara Islands. National Science Museum Monographs, Tokyo, Japan.

Rau, N. and Rau, A. 1980. Commercial marine fishes of the Central Philippines (bony fish). German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Eschborn, Germany.

Richer De Forges, B. 2001. Electronic database of ORSTOM sampling on the Norfolk Ridge. ORSTOM.

Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication.

Shen, S., Lee. S., Shao, K., Mok, H., Chen, C.T. and Chen, C.H. 1993. Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Smith, A. and Dalzell, P. 1991. Fisheries resources and management investigations in Woleai Atoll, Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. Technical document (Inshore Fisheries Research Project (South Pacific Commission) no. 4. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.

Smith, M.K. and Kostlan, E. 1991. Estimates of age and growth of ehu Etelis carbunculus in four regions of the Pacific from density of daily increments in otoliths. Fisheries Bulletin 89: 461-472.

Sommer, C., Schneider, W. and Poutiers, J.M. 1996. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

Sua, D. 1990. Population dynamics of Etelis carbunculus (Lutjanidae) in Tonga, South Pacific. Fishbyte.

Sua, T. 1990. Assessment of the bottomfish resource of western Samoa: an interim report. United States Agency for International Development and National Marine Fisheries Service, Honolulu.

Tinker, S.W. 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Incorporated, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Uchida, R.N. and Tagami, D.T. 1984. Groundfish fisheries and research in the vicinity of seamounts in the north Pacific ocean. Marine Fisheries Review 46(2): 1-17.

Uchida, R.N. and Uchiyama, J.H. 1986. Fishery Atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Report, National Marine Fisheries Service 38.

Wass, R.C. 1984. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Samoa. Special Scientific Report No. 781. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration and National Marine Fisheries Service, Washington, USA.

Wellington, P. and Cusack, P. 1998. Report on fourth visit to Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Report No.14 South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.

Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WPRFMC). 2009. Fishery ecosystem plan for the Hawaii Archipelago. Western Pacific Fishery Management Council.

Western Pacific Regional Fisheries Management Council (WPRFMC). 2010. US western Pacific fisheries-past, present and future. Honolulu, HI.

Winterbottom, R. and Anderson, R.C. 1997. A revised checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. Ichthyology Bulletin of the Smithsonian Institute 66: 1-28.

Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.

Zaneveld, J.S. 1983. Caribbean fish life. Index to the local and scientific names of the marine fishes and fishlike invertebrates of the Caribbean area (Tropical Western Central Atlantic Ocean). Leiden and E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Citation: Russell, B., Carpenter, K.E., Smith-Vaniz, W.F. & Lawrence, A. 2016. Etelis carbunculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2016: e.T154999A46634266. . Downloaded on 21 June 2018.
Disclaimer: To make use of this information, please check the <Terms of Use>.
Feedback: If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided