|Scientific Name:||Etelis carbunculus|
|Species Authority:||Cuvier, 1828|
Etelis marshi (Jenkins, 1903)
Eteliscus marshi Jenkins, 1903
|Red List Category & Criteria:||Data Deficient ver 3.1|
|Assessor(s):||Fry, G. & Newman, S.|
|Reviewer(s):||Collen, B., Richman, N., Beresford, A., Chenery, A. & Ram, M.|
|Contributor(s):||De Silva, R., Milligan, H., Lutz, M., Batchelor, A., Jopling, B., Kemp, K., Lewis, S., Lintott, P., Sears, J., Wilson, P. & Smith, J. and Livingston, F.|
Etelis carbunculus has been assessed as Data Deficient. This is a wide spread and abundant species, however this species is fished throughout much of its range where it is now reported to be undergoing some significant declines. This species is also taken as by-catch. However, there is not enough data from which to determine at what rate the global population is declining. Monitoring of the population trends and harvest levels of this species is needed before a more accurate assessment of conservation status can be made.
|Range Description:||The Ruby Snapper, Etelis carbunculus, is found throughout the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is known from the coast of East Africa to the Persian Gulf and Red Sea, across the Indo-pacific, north to Japan and south to Australia. In the Pacific its range extends to Hawaii, including French Polynesia. It has also been recorded from northern New Zealand (Francis et al. 1999) and out to both Christmas and Cocos Islands (S. Newman pers. comm. 2010).|
Native:American Samoa (American Samoa); Australia; Bahrain; Bangladesh; Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; China; Comoros; Cook Islands; Djibouti; Fiji; French Polynesia; Guam; Hong Kong; India (Andaman Is., Nicobar Is.); Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Republic of; Iraq; Japan; Kenya; Kiribati; Kuwait; Macao; Madagascar; Malaysia; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Mauritius; Micronesia, Federated States of ; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nauru; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Pakistan; Palau; Papua New Guinea; Philippines; Qatar; Réunion; Samoa; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Singapore; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sri Lanka; Taiwan, Province of China; Tanzania, United Republic of; Thailand; Tokelau; Tonga; Tuvalu; United Arab Emirates; United States (Hawaiian Is.); United States Minor Outlying Islands; Vanuatu; Viet Nam; Wallis and Futuna; Yemen
|FAO Marine Fishing Areas:||
Indian Ocean – eastern; Indian Ocean – western; Pacific – eastern central; Pacific – northwest; Pacific – southwest; Pacific – western central
|Range Map:||Click here to open the map viewer and explore range.|
|Population:||There is no population information available for this species.|
|Habitat and Ecology:||The Ruby Snapper inhabits rocky bottoms on the continental shelf, and feeds on fishes and large invertebrates such as squids, shrimps and crabs. It also feeds on planktonic organisms (Haight et al. 1993). This demersal species is known from a depth range of 90-400 m and is known to occur in aggregations. At Vanuatu (New Hebrides) spawning occurs throughout much of the year, with a peak in activity around November (Allen 1985).|
|Use and Trade:||
Species is harvested as food throughout the majority of its range.
In Kimbe, Manus and Oro bay, Rabaul CPUE efforts in the late nineties were 0.57-1.41kg/line hr(Chapman 1998) and 0.001-0.31kg/line hr respectively (Wellington and Cusack 1998).It is thought that the Australian and the Hawaiian parts of its range are heavily fished.
Ruby Snapper is an important food fish in some areas. It is mainly caught with bottom longlines and deep handlines, and is marketed fresh or frozen. It is one of the principal species in the Hawaiian offshore handline fishery. There are indications that some fish stocks on Hawaiian banks have been severely overfished (Haight et al. 1993). Fishery reports for the Hawaiian Islands indicate that the catch rates of E. carbunculus have declined steadily since the 1950s, and have dropped more steeply in the last 10-15 years. As the catch rates have dropped, so have the proportion of mature fish in the catches (DAR 2002).
The Hawaiian landings of this species have dropped from approximately 18,100 kg in 1998 to 10,900 kg in 2003. Moffitt (1980) noted that the CPUE(Catch per Unit Effort) was 0.06-0.08kg/line hr in the North West Hawaiian Islands. Over the last 40 to 50 years, partial CPUE has been reduced to half of what it once was (Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2005). This species is considered locally depleted in the middle Hawaiian Islands, whilst all bottomfish populations are considered 'relatively healthy in the North Western Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy 2005).
This species is also commercially fished in the Western Deepwater Trawl Fishery (WDWTF) in south-western Australia. This species has been intensely fished in this area and due to its aggregatory behaviour with preference for restricted continental shelf habitats, it is vulnerable to heavy fishing. As a result it is reported to be overfished in this area and the catch rates of this species are thought to have fallen (Hunter 2008).
In Kimbe, Manus and Oro bay, Rabaul CPUE efforts in the late nineties were 0.57-1.41kg/line hr(Chapman 1998) and 0.001-0.31kg/line hr respectively (Wellington and Cusack 1998).
This species is harvested throughout most of its distribution range. This species is mostly harvested using deep handlines and bottom longlines (Allen 1985).
There are no species specific conservation measures for Etelis carbunculus, however the distribution of this species may fall within numerous marine protected areas.
Monitoring of the harvest levels is needed with further research on the extent of the fishery. Conservation measures need to protect important spawning aggregations.
Allen, G.R. 1985. FAO species catalogue. Snappers of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lutjanid species known to date. FAO, Rome, Italy.
Allen, G.R. 2000. Lutjanidae (snappers). In: J.E. Randall and K.K.P. Lim (eds), A checklist of the fishes of the South China Sea. Supplement 8: 569-667, pp. 617-618. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Singapore.
Allen, G.R. and Talbot, J.H. 1985. Review of the snappers of the genus Lutjanus (Pisces Lutjanidae) from the Indo-Pacific with the description of a new species. Indo-Pacific Fishes 11: 87.
Anderson Jr, W.D. and Allen, G.R. 2001. Lutjanidae. Jobfishes. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome.
Bagnis, R., Mazellier, P., Bennett, J. and Christian, E. 1972. Fishes of Polynesia. Les Editions du Pacifique, Tahiti.
Bagnis, R., Mazellier, P., Bennett, J. and Christian, E. 1984. Poissons de Polynésie. Société Nouvelle des Editions du Pacifique, Elysée.
Bianchi, G. 1985. Field guide to the commercial marine and brackish-water species of Tanzania. FAO species identification sheets for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Borets, L.A. 1986. Ichthyofauna of the northwestern and Hawaiian submarine ranges. Journal of Ichthyology 26(3): 1-13.
Bouhlel, M. 1988. Poissons de Djibouti. Dubai Printing Press, Dubai.
Brouard, F. and Grandperrin, R. 1984. Les poissons profonds de la pente récifale externe à Vanuatu. Notes Doc. Océanographie, Port-Villa.
Bundesanstalt für Landwirtschaft und Ernährung. 2003. Verzeichnis der Handelsbezeichnungen für Erzeugnisse der Fischerei und der Aquakultur. Available at: http://www.ble.de/index.cfm?8C712107D9244972B3C193AC1917DCE7#Handelsbezeichnungen. (Accessed: 17 June 2003).
Carl, H. 2003. Danish fish names. Unpublished, Zoological Museum of Copenhagen.
Carlot, A.H. 1990. Growth and mortality of snapper Etelis carbunculus in Vanuatu. Fishbyte 8(3): 6-7.
Chapman, L. 1998. Report on third visit to Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Report No. 20. South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.
Chapman, L.B. and Cusack, P. 1990. South Pacific Commission Deep Sea Fisheries Development Project Report on Second Visit to Tuvalu 30 August - 7 December 1983. South Pacific Commission, Noumea.
Chen, C.H. 2004. Checklist of the fishes of Penghu. Fisheries Research Institute Special Publication, Taiwan.
Coppola, S.R., Fischer, W., Garibaldi, L., Scialabba, N. and Carpenter, K.E. 1994. SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. Rome, Italy: Electronic database (Fisheries) Available at: http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=171&speccode=2534.
Cornic, A. 1987. Poissons de l'Ile Maurice. Editions de l'Océan Indien. Stanley Rose Hill, Ile Maurice.
Cuvier, M.B. and Valenciennes, M.A. 1828. Histoire naturelle des poissons. Tome 2. Chez F.G. Levrault, Paris, France.
Dalzell, P., Lindsay, S.R. and Patiale. H. 1991. Fisheries resources survey of the Island of Niue. Technical Document Inshore Fisheries Research Project South Pacfic.
DAR. 2002. Bottomfish. Available at: http://www.hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/bottomfish/index.htm.
De Bruin, G.H.P., Russell, B.C. and Bogusch, A. 1995. The marine fishery resources of Sri Lanka. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Demartini, E. E. and Lau, B.B. 1999. Morphometric criteria for estimating sexual maturity in two snappers, Etelis carbunculus and Pristipomoides sieboldii. Fishery Bulletin 9(3): 449-458.
Eschmeyer, W.N. 1990. Catalog of the genera of recent fishes. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA.
Fischer, W., Sousa, I., Silva, C., de Freitas, A., Poutiers, J.M., Schneider, W., Borges, T.C., Feral, J.P. and Massinga, A. 1990. Fichas FAO de identificaçao de espécies para actividades de pesca. Guia de campo das espécies comerciais marinhas e de águas salobras de Moçambique. Publicaçao preparada em collaboraçao com o Instituto de Investigaçao Pesquiera de Moçambique, com financiamento do Projecto PNUD/FAO MOZ/86/030 e de NORAD. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Foale, S. 1998. What's in a name? An analysis of the West Nggela (Solomon Islands) fish taxonomy. SPC Traditional Marine Resource Management and Knowledge Information Bulletin 9: 2-19.
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2001. The living marine resources of the western central Pacific. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae). FAO, Rome, Italy.
Fouda, M.M. and Hermosa Jr., G.V. 1993. A checklist of Oman fishes. Sultan Qaboos University Press, Sultanate of Oman.
Francis, M. P., Worthington, C. J., Saul, P., and K. D. Clements. 1999. New and rare tropical and subtropical fishes from northern New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33(571-586).
Froese, R. and Pauly, D. 2006. FishBase. Available at: www.fishbase.org.
Ganaden, S.R. and Lavapie-Gonzales, F. 1999. Common and local names of marine fishes of the Philippines. Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Philippines.
Gloerfelt-Tarp, T. and Kailola, P.J. 1984. Trawled fishes of southern Indonesia and northwestern Australia. Australian Development Assistance Bureau, Canberra, Australia.
Haight, W. R., Parrish, J. D. and Hayes, T.A. 1993. Feeding Ecology of Deepwater Lutjanid Snappers at Penguin Bank, Hawaii. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 122: 328-347.
Hardy Jr., J.D. 2003. Coral reef fish species. National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) Coral Reef Data and Information Management System. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Oceanographic Data Center.
Hawaii's Comprehensive Wildlife Conservation Strategy. 2006. Bottom Fishes. Available at: http://www.hawaii.gov/dlnr/dar/pubs/sawcs/mf_bottomfishes.pdf.
Herre, A.W.C.T. 1953. Check list of Philippine fishes. Research Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the U.S Department of the Interior, USA.
Honebrink, R. 1990. Fishing in Hawaii: a student manual. Division of Aquatic Resources, Honolulu.
Huang, Z. 2001. Marine species and their distribution in China's seas. Krieger Publishing Company, Florida, USA.
Humphreys, R.L.Jr., Tagami, D.T. and Seki, M.P. 1984. Seamount fishery resources within the southern Emperor-Northern Hawaiian Ridge. Proceedings 2nd Symposium. Resource Investigations.
Hunter, C. 2008. Stock assessment of ruby snapper (Etelis carbunculus). CSIRO.
Hureau, J.C. 1991. La base de données GICIM: Gestion informatisée des collections ichthyologiques du Muséum. In: J. Allardi and P. Keith (eds), Atlas preliminaire des poissons d'eau douce de France, pp. 225-227. Museum D'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France.
IUCN. 2010. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2010.4). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 27 October 2010).
Japan International Cooperation Agency. 1987. The fisheries resources survey in Fiji and Tuvalu. Figures and tables. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Tokyo.
Kailola, P.J. 1987. The fishes of Papua New Guinea: a revised and annotated checklist. Vol. II Scorpaenidae to Callionymidae. Research Bulletin No. 41. Research Section, Department of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.
Kapoor, D., Dayal, R. and Ponniah, A.G. 2002. Fish biodiversity of India. National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources, Lucknow, India.
Kinch, J. 1999. Economics and environment in island Melanesia: a general overview of resource use and livelihoods on Brooker Island in the Calvados chain of the Louisiade Archipelago, Milne Bay Province, Papua New Guinea. A report prepared for Conservation International. Conservation International, Port Moresby, National Capital District, Papua New Guinea.
Kulbicki, M., Randall, J.E. and Rivaton, J. 1994. Checklist of the fishes of the Chesterfield Islands (Coral Sea). Micronesica 27(1/2): 1-43.
Kyushin, K., Amaoka, K., Nakaya, K., Ida, H., Tanino, Y. and Senta, T. 1982. Fishes of the South China Sea. Japan Marine Fishery Resource Research Center, Nori Otsuru, Tokyo, Japan.
Langi, V.A. and Langi, S.A. 1987. A stock assessment programme on the bottom fishes of the seamounts, Kingdom of Tonga: the first 9 months. Fishbyte 5(3): 6-11.
Letourneur, Y., Chabanet, P., Durville, P., Taquet, M., Teissier, E., Parmentier, M., Quéro, J.-C. and Pothin, K. 2004. An updated checklist of the marine fish fauna of Reunion Island, south-western Indian Ocean. Cybium 28(3): 199-216.
Lokani, P., Pitiale,H., Richards, A. and Tiroba, G. 1990. Estimation of the unexploited biomass and maximum sustainable yield for the deep reef demersal fishes in Papua New Guinea.
Masuda, H., Amaoka, K., Araga, C., Uyeno, T. and Yoshino, T. 1984. The fishes of the Japanese Archipelago. Tokai University Press, Tokyo, Japan.
McCormack, G. 2000. Cook Islands biodiversity and natural heritage database. Available at: http://cookislands.bishopmuseum.org/.
Mead, P. 1980. Report on the Second Visit of the South Pacific commission Deep Sea Fisheries Development Project to NIUE. South Pacific Commission, New Caledonia.
Mindanao State University at Naawan. 1995. Rapid resource appraisal of Davao Gulf. Mindanao State University at Naawan Foundation for Science and Techology Development.
Moffit, R.B. 1980. A preliminary report on bottomfishing in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In: R. Griggs and P.T. Pfund (eds), Proceedings of the Symposium on Status of Resource Investigation in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii., pp. 216-225. UNIHI-SEAGRANT-MR-80-04.
Mohsin, A.K.M., Ambak, M.A. and Salam, M.M.A. 1993. Malay, English, and scientific names of the fishes of Malaysia. Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, Selangor Darul Ehsan.
Mohsin, A.K.M. and Ambak, M.A. 1996. Marine fishes and fisheries of Malaysia and neighbouring countries. University of Pertanian Malaysia Press, Serdang, Malaysian.
Myers, R.F. 1999. Micronesian reef fishes: a comprehensive guide to the coral reef fishes of Micronesia. Coral Graphics, Barrigada, Guam.
Nelson, J.S. 1984. Fishes of the world. John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York.
Ni, I.H. and Kwok, K.Y. 1999. Marine fish fauna in Hong Kong waters. Zoological Studies 38(2): 130-152.
Opic, P., Conand, F. and Bourret, P. 1994. Poissons commerciaux du sud-ouest de l'océan Indien. ORSTOM Édition.
Pauly, D. 1980. On the interrelationships between natural mortality, growth parameters, and mean environmental temperature in 175 fish stocks. Journal du Conseil International pour l'Exploration de la Mer 39(2): 175-192.
Ralston, S. 1987. Mortality rates of snappers and groupers. rsmas.
Ralston, S. 1988. Length-weight regressions and condition indices of lutjanids and other deep slope fishes from the Mariana Archipelago. Micronesica 21: 189-197.
Ralston, S. and Williams, H.A. 1988. Depth distributions, growth, and mortality of deep slope fishes from the Mariana Archipelago. NOAII Technical Memo.
Randall, J.E. 1973. Tahitian fish names and a preliminary checklist of the fishes of the society of islands. Occasional Papers of the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum 24(11): 167-214.
Randall, J.E. 1997. Randall's tank photos. Unpublished.
Randall, J.E. and Anderson, R.C. 1993. Annotated checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Maldives Islands. Ichthyology Bulletin of the J.L.B. Smith Institute of Ichthyology 59: 1-47.
Randall, J.E., Ida, H., Kato, K., Pyle, R.L. and Earle, J.L. 1997. Annotated checklist of inshore fishes of the Ogasawara Islands. National Science Museum Monographs, Tokyo, Japan.
Rau, N. and Rau, A. 1980. Commercial marine fishes of the Central Philippines (bony fish). German Agency for Technical Cooperation, Eschborn, Germany.
Richer De Forges, B. 2001. Electronic database of ORSTOM sampling on the Norfolk Ridge. ORSTOM.
Robins, C.R., Bailey, R.M., Bond, C.E., Brooker, J.R., Lachner, E.A., Lea, R.N. and Scott, W.B. 1991. World fishes important to North Americans. Exclusive of species from the continental waters of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication.
Shen, S.C. 1993. Fishes of Taiwan. Department of Zoology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
Smith, A. and Dalzell, P. 1991. Fisheries resources and management investigations in Woleai Atoll, Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia. Technical document (Inshore Fisheries Research Project (South Pacific Commission) no. 4. South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia.
Smith, M.K. and Kostlan, E. 1991. Estimates of age and growth of ehu Etelis carbunculus in four regions of the Pacific from density of daily increments in otoliths. Fisheries Bulletin 89: 461-472.
Sommer, C., Schneider, W. and Poutiers, J.M. 1996. The living marine resources of Somalia. FAO species identification field guide for fishery purposes. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Sua, D. 1990. Population dynamics of Etelis carbunculus (Lutjanidae) in Tonga, South Pacific. Fishbyte.
Sua, T. 1990. Assessment of the bottomfish resource of western Samoa: an interim report. United States Agency for International Development and National Marine Fisheries Service, Honolulu.
Tinker, S.W. 1978. Fishes of Hawaii, a handbook of the marine fishes of Hawaii and the Central Pacific Ocean. Hawaiian Service Incorporated, Honolulu, Hawaii.
Uchida, R.N. and Tagami, D.T. 1984. Groundfish fisheries and research in the vicinity of seamounts in the north Pacific ocean. Marine Fisheries Review 46(2): 1-17.
Uchida, R.N. and Uchiyama, J.H. 1986. Fishery Atlas of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Technical Report, National Marine Fisheries Service 38.
Wass, R.C. 1984. An annotated checklist of the fishes of Samoa. Special Scientific Report No. 781. National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration and National Marine Fisheries Service, Washington, USA.
Wellington, P. and Cusack, P. 1998. Report on fourth visit to Papua New Guinea. Unpublished Report No.14 South Pacific Commission. Noumea, New Caledonia.
Winterbottom, R. and Anderson, R.C. 1997. A revised checklist of the epipelagic and shore fishes of the Chagos Archipelago, Central Indian Ocean. Ichthyology Bulletin of the Smithsonian Institute 66: 1-28.
Wu, H.L., Shao, K.T. and Lai, C.F. 1999. Latin-Chinese dictionary of fishes names. The Sueichan Press, Taiwan.
Zaneveld, J.S. 1983. Caribbean fish life. Index to the local and scientific names of the marine fishes and fishlike invertebrates of the Caribbean area (Tropical Western Central Atlantic Ocean). Leiden and E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
|Citation:||Fry, G. & Newman, S. 2010. Etelis carbunculus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 30 June 2015.|
|Feedback:||If you see any errors or have any questions or suggestions on what is shown on this page, please provide us with feedback so that we can correct or extend the information provided|